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Vol. XX. 1929-30. 






Reprinted 1983 



Price : Rs. 40.00 

Printed at Pearl Offset Press, 5/33 Kirti Nagar Industrial Area New Delhi-110015. 





Vol. XX. 1929-30. 







The names *>/ contributors are arranged alphabetically* 


No, 3, Three Tamil Inscriptions of Laigudi ...,.,.... 40 
BANEEJI, R, !>., M.A. 

No, 10. Patna Museum Plates of Ranabhanja the year 22 .,. f 100 
11. The Kadambapadraka Grant of Naravarman V. S. 1167 . . . . , , 105 

No* 5. Paharpur Copper-plate Grant of the [Gupta] year 159 . . , , 59 


No. 9. Samoli Inscription of the time of Siladitya [Vikrama-Samvat] 703 * , 97 
13. Babok Inscription of the time of Dhavalappadeva ; [Harsha-] Samvat 207 * * . 122 

- No. 14. F*ur Chandella Copper-plate Inscriptions y/ ,., 125 

- No. 7. The Hathigumpha Inscription of Kharavela *...,. 71 

No, 6 Kotavumachgi Inscription of Vilcramaditya V . . . . f f t . 64 
12. Two Sinda Inscriptions from Benachamatti, Saka 1088 and Saka 1109 ... 109 

No. 8. Kap Copper-pkte of Keladi Sadasiva-Nayaka ; Saka 1479 89 


No, 4. A Sunga Inscription from Ayodhya ....,..., f 54 

No. 2. Nalanda Stone Inscription of the reign of Yasovaxmmadeva /..,.* 37 

No, 1, Pmkrit Inscriptions from a Buddhist site at Nagarjunikonda 1 


dix A List of the Inscriptions of Northern India written in Brahmi and its Derirative Scripts from 

about A,C. 200. Bj Professor B. R. Bhandarkar, M,A., Pn.B. . ... 43266 
Title-page, Contents, List of Plates and Additions and Corrections i yiij 


1, fykrit to'ptioa from a Buddhist site at Nagarjnaikonda (I) , , between pages 15 4 ft 

2, (2) n lo19 


M) ** 9) ft tf # 

4, PI . , between pages 22 U3 

* 5, (V) . 24&w0 

6, KakdjStoneliiJcriplJionofthereignofYaaovajmmadeva ... to face page 43 

IThreeTamHInioriptionBofLalgudi ,' between pages 5U63 

tt 8. lakpot Copper Plate Grant of the (Gupta) year 159 . . . 

^ 10. Samoli Inseription of the toe of SMtyHVi^na-S^at] 703. , to face page M 

H 11. Pataa Hnseom Plates of Ranabhinja-the year 22 .... between pages 102 & 103 

i, 12. Kadambapadraka Grant of NuaTanan-V. 8, 1167 .... ,, 106 ft Id? 

11 Dabok Uption of tin time of Dbralappadera ; EH&nb] Samvat 207 to face page 124 

. . tf M lift 


Page 7, 1. 26. For Kasmfra read Kasinka. 

15, 1 7 of GL For Bhatideva reaZ Bhatideva* 

5J 22, 1. 26. For mahavifha^Jre rearf Mahavi[ha*]re, 

23, 1. 11. For Tambapamna read Tambapainni. 

32i L 38. For (0. 1. 12) razeZ (H. 1 12), 

35, 1. 17. For A&oka read ASoka. 
penultimate line. .For China read China* 

36, 1. 17. .For Naharallabodu read Naharailabodu. 

39, 1. 8. For he read the. 

44, In. 3. For hould read should. 

45, penultimate line in translation of Verse 1. For fislies (engraved) read makaras ( 

(suggested by Dr. A. Coomaraswamy, ed.). 
L 2, in translation of Vv. 4-6. For asif read as if. 
3, L 3 J5 V. 9, For copious read copious, 

55 47, L 35. For Parantak n read Parantakan. 

48, L 25. For latter read later, 
L 36, For Velurapalaiyam read Velurpalaiyam. 
9> L 2 of f . n. 5. Insert ( before Stambha). 

49, 1, 6. Insert 4 after Aparajita. 
f n. 5, For Tillasthanam read Tillaistlianam. 

>3 50, col 4 in the table. For Prithvlpati I read Prithvlpati L 
>3 5S L 1 of f . n. 3. For Varaguna read Varaguna, 

51, penultimate line of the letterpress. For Ilampenmgay- read Ilamperunkay-, 

53, L 5 of translation. For th esun read the sunj 
1. 5 of text of C. For 1-ppon read i-ppog,. 

53 56, L 29. For writer read writers. 

t> 58, 1. 30. For karamisra read karami^ra. 

w 61, 1. 2 of f n. 5. For Natha-6armma read Natha^armiaa, 

,, 63, f. n. 7, For mahlmatam read makimatam. 

65, 1. 10. For Gomda-Bhatta read Gr6vinda-Bha,tta. 

66,120. Omit be, 
f . n. 1. For Hebbal read HebbSj. 
5J f. n, 6, For elonged read belonged. 
:J 67, text 1. 24. For bhatta- read bhatta-, 
S3 68, text L 43. For mukkyarggam read mukhyarggaih, 

>3 69, i n. 4. For m%r*faWw: read g 

70, 1. 2 of translation of LI. 46-48. For Varanasi read Varana^i 
79 a text line 6. For Baja=s[u]ya[in] read Rajas[u]ya[mj 
83, 1 . 2* For Kalingapatanam read Kalingapatanam* 
86 r , t n. 5 1. 3. For Bhattoji read Bhattoji. 
87.J u 3 1 1 . For Fori nstaace read For instance, 


siiitZi^nr ,z iii!!!!r^ .......... * ............. "" ........ . ..... ........... --"""'. ............... ' ".- " '- ..... - ' -'.'-..' '".- ..... - *- * " ..... ' "--'-"--' --- ....' ...... ~*"" ''' ' '' "*" jji!i!i!i! 1 " i . . 'I'ui'iu _______ ,JT ...... i" 11 

Paje88,in,6.-lorD,P.J,fi(IK,P 1 J, 
9, 1, 5 of translation of 1, 15,-f or Sindhula ml Sindhll 
99, f , n, 2,-ftr Tiramitrodaya mi FiMMqa, 
91, 1, S.-Jor Mi,hmkri$ id J 
92, L U,-Ar Girnar nod Sirnar, 
95, translation of LL 19 f ,-Jor hmlk 
96, 28 Shorter- refliKa 
91, L 2,~ta a comma o/hr Samkara-setti, 

text L 11,-ftr tftl fari 

extl-JS^orDakhitbtijiiia-pafpalli- reu(JDaklii(kslii)i)apa(pa)lh 
103, text L 4 Wfor Bhn(BM)mi -wi bk(bliii)ink 
text U2,~ftr -samka 

H(),L5,~jPorYoge5vara- rdYogeivara-, 


jj ilU} it v*r 





In March 1926 Mr. A. R. Sarasvati, Telugu Assistant In the office of the Assistant Archae- 
ological Superintendent for Epigraphy at Madras, made a discovery of great interest at the hill of 
Nagarjunikonda which belongs to the Palnacl taluk of the Gu^tur district of the Madras Presi- 
dency. 1 The hill, which is described as a big flat-topped hill some 200 acres in extent, overhangs 
the right bank of the river Kistna or Krishna, the Rannapenna or Ka^navanna (Skt. Erishmvarna) 
of Pali literature, at a distance of some 15 miles from Macherla and on the border of the Nizam's 
Dominions. The top of the hill shows traces of fortifications, now in ruins. The find of a Buddhist 
sculpture led to the discovery of three vast mounds of large bricks in different parts of the valley, 
each, apparently, marking the site of a stupa. In the vicinity of these mounds marble pillars were 
found, some of them standing erect in rows. Several more were reported to lie scattered in the 
neighbouring villages and on the other side of the river. Among the pillars left on the site there 
were three, one on each mound, bearing inscriptions in Prakrit and in Brahml characters. 

At the request of Dr. Hirananda Sastrl, Government Epigraphist, I undertook to edit 
the inscriptions in the Epigraphia Indica. A set of excellent estampages prepared under instruc- 
tions from that officer, reached me in September 1926 ; but it was not until the end of that year 
that I could find the necessary leisure to decipher and study them. Early in March 1927. Dr. 
HirSnanda $astri informed me that trial excavations carried out on the site of Nagarjunikonda 
by Mr. Hamid Kuraishi, then officiating as Superintendent of Archaeology in the Southern Circle, 
had yielded no less than eighteen more inscriptions and that their estampages would be sent to 
my address, in case I should be willing to edit them. I gladly consented to undertake this laborious 
but attractive task. As, however, there was a likelihood of the recently discovered inscriptions 
being of some help in elucidating doubtful points in those foimd previously, I suggested that the 
epigraphical finds of NagarjunikoEuJa might be best dealt with in one article. Dr. Hirananda 
Sastri accepted this proposal and in October 1927 supplied me with a complete set of estampages 
admirably executed. 

During the cold season of 1927-28 the excavations at Nagarjuniko94 a were continued under 
the supervision of Mr. A. H. Longhurst, Superintendent of the Archaeological Survey, Southern 
Circle. These explorations have resulted in the discovery of a number of very remarkable Buddhist 
sculptures* some of them bearing inscriptions. The style which they exhibit is clearly that of 

1 A preliminary account of the discovery will be found in the Annual Report on South-Indian Epigraphy jor 
the year ending 3.Ut March 1926, Madras, pp. 4 and 92 f. C/. also Annual Bibliography of Indian ArcMogy for 
the ywr 1926, Leyden, 1928, pp. 


Amaravatl, although perhaps they cannot boast of the high artistic merit which wo admire in the 
best work from that pkce. Among the sculptural decoration of the two pillars discovered by 
Mr. Longliurst there are figures which clearly betray Roman influence. The full report of his 
excavations will be received with the greatest interest. There cannot be the slightest doubt that 
Nagarjunikonda represents, nest to Amaravati, the most important Buddhist site hitherto found 
in Southern India. The results which Amaravati might have yielded have, for a lar^c part 
been irreparably lost owing to the deplorable vandalism perpetrated on that monument more 
than a century ago. It is all the more gratifying that the site of Nagfirjunikonda is now being 
systematically explored so that no piece of evidence is likely to be overlooked.' M?. Longhurst 
estimates that the complete excavation of the site will require three years more. 

When in February 1882 Dr. Burgess excavated the site of the Jaggayyapeta stupa, on the 
Paler river, a tributary of the Krishna and about four miles north of their junction, he chanced 
upon three inscribed pillars, bearing each an identical dedicatory inscription in Prakrit. 1 These 
epigraphs record the gift of five ayaTca-MMmbJias at the eastern gate of the Mahachetiya or Great 
Chaitya by a certain artisan (avesani) Siddhattha in the twentieth year of King iladhariputa 
Siri-Virapurisadata of the Ikhaku dynasty. The corresponding form in Sanslarit would be 
Mathariputra Sri-Virapurushadatta. Dr. Burgess expressed the opinion that the Jaggayyapeta 
inscriptions " belong to about the third or fourth century A.D., but are possibly earlier." Dr 
Buhler 8 , while editing them, placed the reign of King Purisadata in the third century of our era" 
and " before the accession of the Pallavas to the throne of Vengi." ' ' 

The position of such aya&a-pillars on the monument to which they once have belonged becomes 
perfectly dear from the c^a-slabs which have been found in such remarkable numbers on the 
rate of Amaravati. These cAc%a- s labs exhibit the effigy in relief of a cMtya or stupa in all its 
details, in other words, they represent the great monument which they once adorned. Now one 
of the most prominent features of the main edifice-a feature not met with, as far as we are aware 
in other parts of India-is a row of five columns surmounting a kind of projecting balcony which 
seems to form part of the procession-path running around the body of the monument. These 
pillars invariably occupy a position right opposite the entrances to the sacred enclosure, and as 
the stone railing surrounding the sanctuary has an entrance on each of the four cardinal points 
it follows that the monument, when entire, must have had four seta of such pillars. They do not 
appsar to have had any structural function as supporting members, but, besides carrying well- 
known Buddhist emblems, they were utilised for dedicatory inscriptions, as have been noticed at 
Jaggayyapeta. The word ayaJca-Jchantifa mentioned in these epigraphs is evidently the technical 
term by which they were known. 3 . 

There can be little doubt that the great stupa of Amaravati, when entire, was decorated with 
such pillars, but only a few fragments have been recovered.* In the case of the monument of 

I im B Tw' ^- Bud f M ^ o/Amarwati and Jaggayyapeta; London," 1887, pp. 110 L, plates LXII a^d 

"/r,^:' L ^'^^ B/fflta ^' 1 ^^.No8.12(M!4aM{aj../fi < l. l VoL X, app., pp. 139 f ,. Q 
BShler, indiscJte PalaograpMe, p. 44. w vv ' ' "' 

8 Ind. Ant., Vol. XI (1882), pp. 256 ff. 

' Ih* woid oyofo occurs also in the oompowds ddMfrdyife (Burgess, AmarmaH. etc., p. 86, pi. LX no 
and tfor^ofci , <* *, p . 93). whfah have bean rendered the south entrance and " tho northern K t 

tra r lation is correet The word " gate " is renere y ( 

probably the word ayofa. indicate*, that part of the monument where the 6yakaMaMha veto placed 

'^'T;. 1 "*- ThefiM8t8 P e <^iB ^e 8 qu a re lower end of . pillar decorated on the 
Buddhist symbok-a ttupa, a 6a-tree, a cJWa-hall and a wheel ThS t 


Jaggayyapeta three inscribed specimens were found, only one of them being complete* These, 
as we have seen, must hare belonged to a set of five such pillars which were placed on the east 
side. Dr. Burgess noticed large pillars or stelae at three of the sides of tke stupa, but it would 
teem that those lound oa the other sides were uninseribed* 

The explorations at Nagarjunikonda have brought to light no less than seventeen specimens 
of Sya/b-pillarSi all inscribed. In thirteen cases the inscription is complete or nearly so. The 
technical execution ol these epigraphs is as remarkable as the state of their preservation. Evi- 
dently, these pillars once served the purpose of adorning the main monument of the site, mentioned 
in the inscriptions under the name of Mahachetiya (Ski Mahachatiya), i.e*, the Great Ohaitya. 
It is clear that here, too, there must have stood a row of five such pillars at each of the four cardinal 
points, their total number being twenty. The original position which each of the seventeen columns 
so far recovered once occupied, could still be ascertained, A complete list of the inscriptions will 
be given below. 

The mound which covered the rains of the Mahachetiya is nowadays known by the name of 
Mbagutta. Close to the east side of the great monument the excavations revealed the remains 
of an apsidal temple containing a small cJiaitya as an object of worship. The floor of this shrine 
retains the record of its foundation ip an inscription (E) of two very long lines, remarkably well 

At a distance of about a furlong to the east of the Great Chaitya there is another mound called 
NaharSHabodu. According to Mr. Longhurst, this site contains the most important group of 
monastic buildings, including a large monastery built of brick and plaster, and the remains of two 
At the side of the former building were found the remnants of another apsidal shrine or 
Here, too, a long inscription (F), incised on the floor of the temple, was found to be 
the record of its foundation. 

There is a third mound known by the name of Itikarallabodu to the north-west of the Great 
Chaitya and at a distance of about two furlongs from it. Here a number of stone pillars, apparently 
still occupying their original position, indicate the existence of another ancient building. From 
the inscription (G) found on one of these pillars (this inscription is one of the three recovered in 
March 1926), it appears that the edifice in question was a vihara somewhat later in date than the 
buildings previously noticed. If this conclusion is correct, the stone pillars may have formed part 
of the verandah enclosing the central court-yard of the convent* 

A third vihara must have stood in a locality now knom as Kottampalugu to the north of 
Nagarjuniko^da. Here, too, the record of its foundation is inscribed on a stone pillar. The in- 
scription (H), which is one of the three copied in March 1926, is probably the latest in date, the 
writing being smaller and less distinct than in the case of the earlier inscriptions* 

The Jaggayyapeta inscriptions, as we have noted above, are dated in the twentieth year of 
the reign of a king who calls himself Ma<Jhanputa Ikhakunam Siri- Virapurisadata. The epigraphic- 
al records now recovered on the Buddhist site of Nagarjunikon4a refer to the same Ikhaku 
dynasty of Southern India. They mention not only Madharlputa Siri- Virapurisadata, 1 ia 
whose reign the principal sanctuaries of this locality were founded, but also his father, Vasithiputa 
Siri-Chamtamula, and his son and successor Vasetihiputa Siri~Ehuvula-Chatamula. a In a 
passage which occurs in several of the inscriptions, the former is eulogized as a performer of the 

1 This is the usual spelling of the name. The more correct form Siri- Virapurisadata occurs in inscr. G^ 

2 It is somewhat difficult to decide whether Chazhtamula or Chatamula is the correct form of these twft 
names, In some cases there appears to be. the sign of the anuwdra over the a. WQ may, therefore, asaame. 
elsewhere it has been omitted by mistake. 


Vedic sacrifices Agnihotra, Agnishtoma, Yajapeya and A6vamedha. It follows that Siri-Chanita- 
milla was a devotee of Brahmanism. His sop, Siri-Virapurisadata, though partaking in the 
religious merit, does not seem to have had an active part in the foundation of the religious 
monuments of Nagarjunikoi^a, They owed their existence to the piety of certain queens and 
princesses belonging to the royal house of Ikhaku and evidently devotees of the Buddhist faith. 

The principal founder was a lady called Ohamtisiri l (sirinika in inscr. B 3) who is praised for 
her munificence in a passage which recurs in not less than nine of the <%a&a-pillar inscriptions . 
In these inscriptions she is called the uterine sister of Siri-Chamtamula and the paternal aunt 
of Siri-Virapurisadata. She was married to the Mahasenapati, the Mahatatavara Vasithiputa 
Kamdasiri of the Pukiya 8 family, and, in consequence, she herself bears the title of Mahatalavan* 
Moreover, she is called the mother of Khamdasagaramnaka. In one of the pillar inscriptions (B 5) 
it is distinctly stated that it was she who erected the Great Chaitya of the Great Vihara or Monas- 
tery. It is curious that here the instrumental plural (mahatdavarihi Chamtisiri^iMM) 

is employed, but it will be noted that several ladies of that name took part in the donation, 
Or, can it be a pluralis majestatis ? The date regularly found at the end of the pillar inscriptions 
the sixth year of Siri-Virapurisadata, the sixth fortnight of the rainy season, the tenth day marks* 
no doubt, the time when the great monument was consecrated. Chamtisiri was, moreover, the 
foundress of the apsidal shrine (No. I), built opposite the eastern or principal side of the Great 
Chaitya* 3 This is distinctly stated in the long inscription (E) cut on the floor of that building. In 
this document the edifice founded by (MiMisiri is designated first as a chetiya-ghara, and subse- 
quently as a stone ma%4apa surrounded by a cloister (chatusdla-parigahitam sela-mamtavam).* 
The building was dedicated to the acMryas of the Aparamahavinaseliya sect. The time of the 
dedication is expressed by the date found at the end of the inscription the eighteenth year of 
Siri-Yirapurisadata, the sixth fortnight of winter, the fifth day. The date is given both in words 
and in figures. 

It deserves notice that in the earlier inscriptions Chamtisiri is called the paternal aunt 
(pituchM)* of the reigning king, whereas in the later inscription (E), noted above, she refers to the 
king as her son-in-law. It would seem that Siri-Virapurisadata between the 6th and the 18th 
years of his reign had married the daughter of his aunt and consequently his cousin. 

Two of the pillar inscriptions (C 2 and 4) mention another sister (sQdara bhagM) of Kin*? 
Siri-Chamtemula, whose name was Hammasiri or Eammasiri^ika, and two of her daughters 
named Bapisiri^ika and Chhattnsiri. Both these princesses were married to the reknin Ainu 
their cousin, and consequently bear the title of Mahadevi. 

The same title of MaMdem is borne by a lady, Eudradharabhatarika, whose name occurs in 
the inscription on the fiffli pillar of the southern row (B 5). It may be concluded that she, too was 
a consort of the reigning king, though in the inscription she is not expressly designated as 'snob 
She ap^ars to have been a princess from Ujjain (Skt. Ujjayini), the well known town in Central 
E * ^.^^^j^f ed k mij *S ^ Deling Ujanika maharaMika of the text into 
moftoa^Ub. Among the rulers of the house of Chashtana, the so-called 


nsnatrapas, TOOK capital was Ujjam, we find a certain preference for personal names , 
the name of the god Rudra. such as Rudradaman, Rudrasena and Rudrasiniha. This 


all the more plausible to assume that the Queen. Rudradharabhatariki, mentioned in the inscrip- 
tion belonged to that illustrious house. 

The pillar inscriptions acquaint us with three more noble ladies who were associated with 
Chamtisiri in her pious foundation. The one mentioned on the second pillar of the south side 
(B 2) is called Adavi (?)-Cha[m]tisiri. The inscription calls her the daughter of King Siri-Chanita- 
mula, the sister of King Siri-Virapurisadata, and the wife of the Mahdsenapati Mahatalavara 
Mahadandanayaka Khamdavisakhamnaka (*Skt. Skandavisakha) of the house of the.Dhanakas- 
She herself is distinguished by the title of Mahatalavari. 

The other lady, who was the donor of the fourth pillar of the southern row (B 4), is called 
Chula-Cha[m]tisirinika, i.e., Cha[rii]tisirinika the Less or tlie Younger, the adjective chula evi- 
dently being added to distinguish her from her namesake, the foundress of the Mahachetiya. The 
junior Cha[m]tisirinika, as stated in the inscription, was a daughter of the Kulahakas and the 
spouse of the MaMsenapati Mahdtalavara Vasithipiita Khamdachalikireriirnasaka of the 
Hiram nakas. She herself bears the title of Mahasenapatini. 

The fifth pillar of the western side (C 5) was dedicated by a lady whose personal name is not 
mentioned, but who is called the wife of the MaMsenapati Mahatalavara Vasithlputa Maha- 
kamdasiri of the Piikiyas and the mother of the Mahasenapati Mahdtalavara Vinhusiri (=Skt. 
Vishnr^rl). She is, moreover, distinguished by the title Mahatdavan* If we may assume that 
Mahakamdasiri and Kanidasiri are one and the same person, it would follow that the anonymous 
lady of the pillar-inscription C 5 was a co-wife (sapatm) of Chamtisiri. 

We must now consider the two separate pillar-inscriptions G and H which, as we have noted 
above, must belong to a somewhat later date. The inscription 0- is found on one among a number 
of pillars, decorated with lotus-rosettes, which were found standing about two furlongs to the 
north-west of the Mahachetiya. Mr. Longlmrst informs me that the tops of these pillars are each 
provided with a mortice evidently meant to receive the beams of a wooden roof. This would well 
agree with our supposition that these stone columns once belonged to the verandah enclosing the' 
central court of the vihara. The inscribed stone shows several cracks running through the inscri- 
bed surface and the letters are worn owing to exposure. 

The inscription records the foundation of a viMra by Mahadevl Bhatideva who is called the 
daughter-in-law of Siri-Cha[m]tamuk, the wife(?)of Siri-Virapurisadata, and the mother of a 
Maharaja, whose name appears to be Siri-Ehuvu]a-Chat&mula. The three syllables which we 
read fatvula are uncertain. The same is the case with the one or two initial syllables of the 
word following the name Siri-Virapurisadata, so that it is doubtful what relation existed between 
that king and the lady Bhatideva. The word in question, however, can be hardly anything but 
Vhayaya. Thus it would follow that Bhatideva was the consort of the king. The last two 
lines of the document seern to have contained a date, but unfortunately this part of the 
inscription has been obliterated to such an extent that our reading must be regarded as conjec- 
tural Evidently the vihara was founded during the reign of Bhatideva's son, the Maharaja 
whose name is mentioned in the inscription. 

The inscribed pillar of Kottampalugu is also the foundation record of a vihara. The foundress 
was a Mahddem who was the granddaughter of Siri-Cha[m]tamula, the daughter of Siri-Vira- 
purisadata, arid the sister of Maharaja Vasothlputa Siri-Bhuvula-Cha[rii]tamula. It is, moreover, 
stated in the inscription that she was the consort of the Maharaja of Vanavasa. Her personal 
name is soraewhat indistinct but rnny be read as Kodabalisiri. It will be noted in the sequel 
that Vanavasa, the ancient name of North Kanara, occurs also among the countries within the 
ehaitya- inscription F are stated to have been converted to Buddhism by the (Jcylonese monks u 


The pillar inscription of Kottampalugu is dated in the eleventh year of the reign of Siri-EhuvuJa - 

The historical information furnished by these inscriptions regarding the three fnltim of the 
Southern Ikhaku dynasty, whom they mention, is very meagre, Siri-Chathtamula is extolled 
in a passage winch recurs in several of the inscriptions but which appears to be entirely conven- 
tional. It has been pointed out above that the king must have been an adept of Btfthntaiusm, 
Prom the expression Virupakhapctii-MahaSma-parigaMtasa, which is applied to ChaiMam^la* 
ifc may perhaps be concluded that he was a votary of the god Mahasena or Skanda, * s the lord of the 
Virupakhas". The term Virupakha (*Skt. Virupaksha) seems to be used here to indicate the 
hosts of which Skanda is the lord and leader. 1 Dr. Biihler's assumption, based on pal&eogra* 
phical evidence, that Siri-Virapurisadata flouiished in the third century of our era, may bo 
accepted as probably correct. 

Although the inscriptions tell us nothing about the faits et gestes of these kings, it IB interesting 
to meet with a line of rulers, settled in the Telngu country, which claimed descent from Ikhaku, 
i.e., Ikkhaku (*=Skt. Ifahvaku), the mythical progenitor of the famous Solar dynasty of Ayodhya* 
It is well known that not only Kama belonged to that illustrious house, but the Buddha, too, is 
called a scion of the race of Ikshvaku (Pali OJcTcaka). It is clear, in any case, that these Southern 
Ikhakus were rulers of some importance, as they f ormed matrimonial alliances jaot only with th 
Maharajas of Vanavasa, but also with the kings, presumably the descendants of the Satrap Ohash- 
tana, who resided at tJjjayim in Central India. The nomenclature of these {Southern Ikhaku 
kings, coupling their personal names with metronymics like Madhariputa and VasitMputa seems 
to be a practice borrowed from the earlier rulers of the JLndhra dynasty. Ifc will hardly be neces* 
sary to quote the instance of Vasithlputa Siri-Pulumayi and Gotamiputa Sataka^ni. On the 
other hand, there are in these inscriptions certain expressions which are also found in the 
Prakrit copper-plate grants of the early Pallavas, as will be pointed! out in our glossary. 

There are two more points to be noted in connection with these kings. We see that the name 

Chamtamula, borne by the father of Siri-Virapurisadata, re-occurs in tte name of the latter's 

son. This seems to point to the custom of naming a child after its grandfather, which, && far 

as we are aware, is not an indigenous practice in Indifc,* It further deserves notice that among 

the consorts of king Siri-Virapurisadata we meet with two of hia Cousins, 

Chaihtisiri, the sister of king CShamtamiila, was married to a personage who bore the titles of 
Mahmenapati and Mahatafavara. The same is stated with reference to other prilacestfes of the 
ruling house. The title MaMsenapati (lit* " great chief of the army " or general) denoted feudatOiy 
chieftains in charge of rashtraS or districts under the Indhtafi, and the same meaning may perhaps 
be assumed here. The woid is, therefore, to be takett ftg a title of nobility. We may Compare the 
Anglo-Saxon heretoga (Dutch hettog, Gerinan h&rzog), which etymologically means an atmy-leader ? 
?tfit has become a title of nobility. The tford Mah&slnclpaK could, therefore, be best tendered: by 
15 duke." 

ttie fctiriotis tefra faahatttlai>ar& which is ftlso Met with in othet inscriptions of Southern India, 
must likewise denote a high dignitary whose exact function, however, is not cleat. The second 
r of the compound is not a Sanskrit word, but aeemis to be a term borrowed from some 

1 HhQ word rirnpakha, (Skt. Virvy&fatha), indicating a class of snakes, occurs in an ancient snake-charm 
a fifrtom (ed. Oldenberg), Vol. II, p. 110 ; &'3. A, Vol. X p. 76. 
Pto irastom was kaoWn to fievertit ftOing families Of aaifieftfc India, auoh ad tie Gupta, the 

d l4e Pwlav^ (6f. vl Smtti tidL Ant* VoL XXXV, p; 125). Bestto, <ir ahown by the 

. ...ftgrop\ttiT^.9^ *m t ^r: 

it bid a ^aetroic sanotioa behind it, -Eki.] 


Dravidian language. 1 Evidently it penetrated also into Northern India, for there can "be little 
doubt that it is identical with the mysterious word taravara which, coupled with ma/iapratihdra 
("a great chamberlain ") is found in the legend of one of the clay seaiings excavated by the 
late Dr. Bloch at Basarh, the site of ancient VaisalL This document belongs to the Gupta period. 
It was suggested by Dr. Bloch that the word tarika, which occurs in lists of officials in mediaeval 
copper-plate charters, may quite well be a corrupted form of taravams 

In the inscriptions of Nagarjunikonda not only frequent mention is made of persons bearing 
the title of maMtalavara, but they also contain the feminine form mahaialamri (more correctly 
talayan) indicating the wife of a makatalamra. In the same way the consort of a mahdsendpali 
bears herself the title of mahdsendpatini (Skt, senapatni). It is found in B 4 (1.5). 

A third official title, which occurs in B 2 (L4), is the well-known term mdkada^andyaka. 
The early use of this expression is also attested by a fragmentary inscription, found at the village 
of Mat in the Mathnra district, which contains the name of King Huvishka. 

The first apsidal shrine (No. I), as we have seen, was dedicated by Chamtisiri, the foundress of 
the Mahachetiya, at the foot of which it is built. The other building of this type, on the contrary. 
as stated in the inscription F on the floor, was raised by a simple updsikd, Bodhisiri by name, who 
does not appear to have been related to the royal family of the Ikhakus, Her relatives, who 
were to share in the merit of her pious enterprise, are enumerated at great length* They include a 
Eoth[3]kdriJca (Skt. Rdstyhdgarika), either a treasurer or, perhaps, a- superintendent of a royal 
storehouse. 8 

The inscription opens with an invocation of the Buddha who is extolled in a long string of 
latidatory epithets. Next comes the date which unfortunately is incomplete. This much is 
certain that the inscription is dated in the fourteenth regnal year of a king Madharlputa, who in 
all likelihood is identical with the Madharlputa Siri-Virapurisadata of the ayafca-pillar inscriptions 
of Jaggayyapeta and Nagarjunikontda. The shrine is further stated to have been dedicated to the 
fraternities of Ceylonese monks who had converted Kasmira (Kashmir), G-andhara, China, Chilata 
(Skt. Kirata), TosaH, Avaramta (=Skt. Aparanta), Vamga (i.e., Bengal), Vanavasi (i.e., North 
Kanara), Tavana (?), Damila (?),. Jura and the Isle of Tambapamni (i.e., Ceylon). Some of the 
countries are mentioned in the Mahavamw among the territories which had been converted to 
Buddhism after the Third Council, namely, Kasmira and Gandhara, Vanavasa, Aparantaka 
and Yona. 4 We may also compare two passages in the Milindapanha mentioning a number of 

*At the end of the Kon^amutji copper-plate grant (IBp. Ind., Vol. Vi, pp. 315 ff,) the late Dr. Hultzsoh read 
Mahfttagi-varena maMdaih$<mayakenaBh&p(Mnavammena kafati. There can be little doubt that matiatagivarena 
is a mistake, due either to the scribe or to the engraver, for mahatodavarena. This term occurs also in a fragmen,. 
tary Prakrit inscription found at the village of Allurii, in the Nandigama toduJc, Kistna district. Cf. Annual 
Report on South-Indian Epigraphy, 1924, p. 97 and A. S. R. for 1923-24, p. 93. 

We must leave this question to the decision of students of South-Indian languages. Can the word have 
any connection with Tamil talavay (*a general), Tamil 'talaiyari (*a village watchman), or Canarese talavara, 
talavara (a watchman, a beadle) ? [The Mahatalavaras are mentioned in early Jaina literature along with 
18 Oa^amjas. So Mahatalavara must be taken aa a title of nobility. C/. KalpasMra, (ed. Jacobi, Leipzig 1879) 
61,1121-25. The SvbdtiMM, a Sanskrit commentary on it by Vinayavijaya <Nin?aya-sagara Press, Bombay, 
leal 60, 11. fr-7) espkins the $erm tolcwara, thus : ^wr# ^fr-bhvpala^tdalla 
Rajasthantyal. In the Punjab there is a sub-division of high class Khatrfe (= Sanskrit JS>Aofc%<w) wljioh goes 
by the name of Talwar.~~Ed.] 

* A. 8. JS. for 1903-04, p. 108, No. 16 ; plate XL, 6. 

*C/.Jb$waZainSohgaura copper-plate inscription (Liiders, List, 3o. Wt) ad bhaMaJcanko, ift 
scription (Liiders, List, No. 1141). 

* M ahavafaaet, Gh. xij. Cf. Dipamfim, Ch viij 


regions which used to "be visited for purposes of trade. 1 In these two passages the first countries 
mentioned are Saka-Yavana and CMna-Chilata. The printed text has Vilata, but, as has been 
pointed out by Professor Sylvain L6vi, a this is an error for Ohilata. The Chilatas are the same 
un-Aryan tribe often met with in Sanskrit literature under the name of Kirata. In a well-known 
verse of the Panchatantm they are characterized as dishonest traders. We find them, moreover, 
referred to both in the Periplus and by Ptolemy. The former says : " Beyond this [Dosarene], 
the course trending towards the north there are many barbarous tribes, among whom arc the 
Cirrhadae, a race of men with flattened noses, very savage." Ptolemy locates them along the 
Gulf of Bengal, " beyond the Ganges mouth called Antibolei." "Their country is saM to produce 
the best malabatJirm (tamdlayattram). In his chapter on Trans-Gangctic India (VII, 2," 15) the same 
author describes the Tilddai (V* 1. Piladai), also called the 8aesdai, as hairy dwarfs, with a flat 
face and a white skin. Evidently this passage too refers to the Kiratas, the name TiUtlai (TiXdtSoa) 
being an attempt to render in Greek the alternative form Chilada. 8 

It is very interesting to meet here with the name TosalL It will be remembered that A6ka's 
two separate Rock-Edicts of Dhauli are addressed to the Governor and the magistrates (Idaho,'* 
malras) of Tosali. 'This enables us to locate Tosali in Kalinga. James rinsop identified it with 
the " Tosalei metropolis " of Ptolemy, although this place is located in the legions beyond the 
Ganges. We may, perhaps, connect the name Tosali with, the Dosara of Ptolemy and with. DosarenS, 
the name of a country beyond Masalia mentioned in the Peripfas. The name Dosarene is usually 
explained to be the Greek rendering of Sanskrit DaSarna, 4 but there are serious difficulties in the 
way of this identification. First of all, a Prakrit form of Da&ania, from which the Greek form 
must be derived, would certainly not have retained the r which we find in Dosara and Dosarene. 
The long o-vowel of the Greek would also be difficult to account for. Besides, the tribe of the 
Da^arna, as far as we can make out from Indian sources, appears to have been settled in Central 
India and not along the coast. 5 On the other hand, Dosara may have been a dialectic form of 
Tosala. The Periplus states that Dosarene yielded the ivory known as Dosaronic. Hiuen Tsiang 
in his account of Kaliaga says that it produced the great tawny wild elephant which was much 
prized by neighbouring provinces. 

Avaranta (Skfc. Aparanta) is the designation of the tract of the country lying along the west- 
ern coast of the Peninsula, the capital of which was Sopcara. According to the Ceylonese 
Chronicles, it was converted to Buddhism by Dhammarakkhita. A66ka mentions it in his Fifth 
Rock-Edict in connection with the appointment of Dhamma-mahamatas. 

Vanga is the ancient name of Bengal. Vanavasi, also mentioned as VanavSsaka in inscrip- 
tion H, is North Kanara, the name being still preserved in Batiavasi, a village or small town in 
the Shimoga district of the Mysore State in latitude 14 33', longitude 75 5'. The Mahawmm 
mentions Rakkhita as the apostle of Vanavasa. 

The three words following Vanavasi are uncertain. The first one can be hardly anything but 
Yavana, the aWiaras ya and va being still legible. Next comes a name which I read tentatively 
asDamila, meaning the Tamil country. The third word seems to consist of three afakamx the 
second and third of which are clearly lu and ra. It is tempting to restore the name as Palura the 
town mentioned by Ptolemy and identified by Professor Sylvain Levi with Dantapura "the 
Town of the Tooth " on the coast of Orissa. 6 * 

* Mttlindapanha (ed. Trenckner), pp. 327 and 331. "" """"""* ~ -* 

* $tv-<les Asiatiques, Vol. II, p. 24. 

* S ylvain LSvi, op. cit., pp. 23-24. Of. Bijdragen, sixth series, Vol. VI, p. 7 uo 2 
'Penplus transl. by W H. Sckoff, p. 253, and H. L. Bey, Geogr, Diet., 2nd U,W p. 54, ,. 

* Kabdau in his Me'ghaduta locate* the DaSarnas between the Vindhya and Vidisa 

* , VoL CCVI (1925), pp. 46ff, j andlncL 4nfc, Vol. LV (1020), pp. 04ii 


The latter part of inscription F enumerates the various pious foundations several of 
them evidently additions to existing buildings dedicated by Bodhisiri, and mentions, moreover, 
the localities at which each of them was found. It is a point of considerable importance that this 
list includes " a stone ma^apa at the eastern gate of the Mahachetiya at Ka^takasela." Evi- 
dently this locality Kantakasela (Skt Kantakasail^ lit. " Thorn-hill ") must be identical with 
u the emporium Kantikossiila " which Ptolemy mentions (VII, L 15) immediately after " the 
mouths of the Maisolos. 1 * It follows that the river known to the Greeks under the name Mai- 
solos has been rightly supposed to be the Eostna. 1 The country watered by the lower Kistna is 
consequently called Maisolia by Ptolemy. The Periplus speaks (62) of " the region of Masalia 
stretching a great way along the coast before the inland country," and adds that "a great quan- 
tity of muslins is made here." The ancient name by which this part of Southern India was 
known to the Greeks is preserved in that of the town Masulipatam. 

We are perhaps justified in identifying it with the country which Hiuen Tsiang describes 
under the name of T'o-na-kie-tse-kia. 2 This seems to correspond to Dhannakataka, Dhana- 
kataka (Skt. Dhanyakataka), found in two inscriptions from AmaravatL 3 The country in 
question the Chinese pilgrim locates between the Andhra country and that of the Cholas, the latter 
being situated at a distance of some 1,000 li to the south-west. In the course of his description 
lie says : " The convents are numerous, but are mostly deserted and ruined ; of those preserved 
there are about twenty with 1,000 or so priests. They all study the law of the Great Vehicle.' 1 

Hiuen Tsiang further relates that to the east of the capital on a mountain there stood a con- 
vent called PurvaSila and on a mountain to the west was another, called Avara&la. Perhaps it 
would be preferable to render the names of these two monasteries by Purva&aila and Avarasaila, 
the Sanskrit word for a mountain being 6aUa, whereas 6S& means * s stone." Now, it is worthy of 
note that among the localities mentioned in inscription F, we meet ,with the name Puvasela, 
which is clearly a Prakrit form corresponding to Sanskrit Purva&aila. A name, meaning 
** Eastern Mountain or Hill," may, of course, have been used at different places of India. But 
it is a point worth considering whether the remains of Nagarjuniko$4& can possibly represent 
the ancient capital of DhanBakataka, which archaeologists have sought both at Dharanikofca 
near Amaravati and at Bezwa<Ja 

Another point of interest is the mention of Siripavata (i.e., Siripawata) in inscription F. 
The Prakrit word corresponds to Sanskrit Snparvata. Now, there is a tradition preserved in 
Tibet that Nagarjuna spent the concluding part of his life in a monastery of that name in South- 
ern India. 4 If this convent is the same as the " vihdra on the Siripavata to the east of Vijaya* 
pun " of our inscription, it would follow that the association of the great divine of the Mahayana 
with Ais locality has been preserved up to the present day in the name Nagaxjuniko$<Ja. We 
may confidently hope that these and other questions of great import will be finally settled by fur- 
ther systematic excavations. 

Among the religious foundations enumerated in F, we wish, to draw attention to the two 
monasteries, called Kulaha-wMra and Slhala-wMra. The former appears to have owed its exis- 
tence to the same noble family which is mentioned in one of the aya&a-pillar inscriptions (B 4) 

* E. H, Warmington, The Commerce between the Roman Empire and India, Cambridge 1928, p. 116. 

* &-y-&t, transl. by S. Beal, VoL II, pp. 221 ft ; Thomas Waiters, On YuanChwang*a TrweU in /<fe> f 
VoL H, pp. 214 ff. 

9 Prof. Lfiders' Zist, NOB. 1225 and 1271. The form Dhatfinakota occurs in the MayidawMu eopper-pUt* 
grant of the Pallava Yuvamahar&ja Sivaskandavarman. 

* W. Wasailjew, Der Buddhianva, Vol. I, pp. 220 f. 



tinder the name of Kulalmka. The other, if we may judge from its appellation, must have been 
a convent founded cither by a Sinhalese or, more probably, for the accommodation of Singhalese 
monks. This fic Ceylonese Convent " appears to have contained a shrine with a Bodhi-tree 
(Bodhi-nikha-pasada=Skt., Bodhi-vriksha-prasada) which is, indeed, a necessary ad junct of the 
Buddhist monasteries of Ceylon up to the present day. Not only the mention of a SihaJa-wAara, 
but also the dedication of a dieliya-ghara to the them/as or " fraternities " of Tambapam^i point 
to relations which must have existed between- the Buddhist community of Dhafmakataka and 
their co-religionists in the Isle of Ceylon. The existence of such relations can be easily accounted 
for from the sea-borne trade which was carried on between the ports of the Island and Kaiitaka- 
sela, the great emporium on the right bank of the Kistna river. 

This trade was, no doubt, al&o largely responsible for the flourishing state of Buddhism ift 
this part of India. The devotees of the Good I/aw were largely recruited from the commercial 
classes and it was their wealth which enabled not only the merchants themselves, hut also their 
royal masters, to raise monuments of such magnificence as the great stuya of Amaravati. Both 
Amaravati and Najrarjunikonda are situated on the right bank of the Kistna, the former being 
situated at a distance of. some 60 miles from the mouth of the river. Nagfirjuniko^da lies consider- 
ably higher up the river, the distance between this place and Amaravati being another 60 milea 
a? the crow flies, but considerably longer by river. On the opposite side of the river we have 
Jaggayyapet-a, containing another monument of the reign of the Ikhakus. The village of Alluru 
in the Nandiganm taluk of the Kistna district has yielded a fragmentary Piukrit inscription, 
referred to above, which' appears to record a donation to a Buddhist monaster)'. At the village 
of Gummadiduru in the Kistna district the remains of a large stupa, adorned with marble reliefs 
in the Amaravati style, have recently come to light together with the remnants of monastic 
buildings. All these monuments attest to the piety and the wealth of the Buddhist community in 
these parts during the second ami third centuries of our era: In the days of Hiuen Tsiang the 
monasteries were mostly deserted and ruined. The collapse of Buddhism on the lower Kistna may 
have had various causes ; besides the general wane of that religion all over India, there may 
have been economic agents at work, like the decline of the sea-borne trade with the West, which 
had caused vast quantities of Roman gold to pour into the Peninsula* Thfcre was -al&o the 
-conquest of Southern India by the Gupta Emperor Samudragupto and the rise of powerful 
dynasties devoted to Brahmanism .like the Pallava in the South and the Chalufcya in the West. 

In connection with Buddhism attention must be drawn to the motion of fleet-names' in the 
Nigarjunikomja inscriptions. In- Nos. C 1, line 10 and E, line 2, the dedication, is stated to be 
made for the benefit or 'acceptance of the Aparamahavinaseliyas. In both cases the sign -for i 
over thfe fifth -akskara is quite distinct so -that we are not allowed to read *mahawna* 9 as was done 
by Drs, Bttrgess and Hitltzsch in the-- case of an Amaravati inscription. 1 The lattefr was 
inclined to associate the name with the Mahavana^ala at Vassal!, well-known from the Buddha 
legend, The Amaravati inscription in question, however, Kaa certainly MtthavinaseUyanarh'* 
At tlwj end of , the< fragmentary Prakrit inscription from Alluru we -read : c^wana\m\ Puw&eli* 
y23fc4i} nigayasa (Skt. arya^m Purva&ailiyanam niMyasya), 

The Pali chromcies^f Ceylon make mention - of the Bubla- and the Apara^jselikas, the two 
sub-divisions of the Mahasanghikas. 8 The latter of those two expressions is perhaps an abbre* 
yial-edform.of.the.AvaramaJiaviaaseliyas in our inscriptions. Can it be that the two sects, 

^ Bargess, Anwavatt, p. 105, No* 49 ; aB&HultJzseV f. D. M< Q., Vol. XXXVII, pp. 660 f,, 

4 JVoMvarfwff, V t 1S ? a&d J>3paea<ft*, V, 154, 


known as Pubba- and Apara-selikas, originated from tlie two Buddhist convents of Pnbbasela 
and Aparasela which, according to Hiuen Tsiang, existed on the Mils to the east and the west 
of the capital of Dhannakataka ? 

The inscription G, line 8, contains the name of another Buddhist sact Bahusutlya which 
corresponds to Pali Bahusuttiya (Skt. Bahusrutlya). Besides, we have Ayira-harhgha (Skt. 
JiTya-sangJia) in C 1, line 11 and C 2, line 10, and Mahi[sa]saka (Skt. Mahlsasaka) in H, line 12. 

Language and Script* 

A considerable difficulty in the way of interpreting the Nagarjunikonda inscriptions is the 
want of precision of which they show ample evidence. Considering that these inscriptions were 
meant to be perpetual records of pious donations made by ladies of royal blood, the careless manner 
in which they have been recorded is astonishing. Not only single syllables but whole words have 
been omitted We find, moreover, that only in one instance it has been considered necessary to 
correct such an omission, i.e., in the word M^Jidchetiya( E, line 1) whera the akshara ha has 
been placed under the line. In other instances syllables have been repeated (C 2, lines 1 and 3), 
or interchanged (e.g., IhamJcham for JchamlJiam in C 4, line 7). Very often the length of the vowels 
a and I is not marked. Even the name of the reigning monarch, Siri-Yirapurisadata, is 
written with vi instead of m except in a very few cases where we find the co.rect spelling with 
1. Much less frequently the long I has been substituted for the short one, e.g., in Mahachetiya. 
Considering the frequency of the omission of the 5-stroke, we have ventured to assume that this 
omission has twice taken place in the long compound sama^a'lamhajia'kava?^a'-vaiiija'dln--d' 
nugaha-veldmiJca~ddna-patilihuga~vochhina-dk^ which re-occurs several times in the 

passage relating to the principal donor, Chain! isiri. This compound, as far as we can see, does 
not yield an intelligible sense, unless we read -dtin+fipatibhag-dvochhina, thus assuming that the two 
adjectives required here are apat<ilhaga and avochhina. With regard to the latter word we may 
compare the use of the Sanskrit equivalent avyavachchhinna in the following line from tLe 
Harivarhia (verse 3580) where we read : avyavachchhinna-dMr-aughaih samudr-augha-samair** 

The sign for dha is sometimes substituted for that of tha, whereas a certain confusion seems to 
prevail between tha and tha. The looped characters ta and na are very similar and are not always 
clearly distinguishable. The same is the case with the aksharas, the initial a and su. 

1 he sign for anusvdra too has often been omitted, while in several cases it is difficult to decide 
whether what appears to be a dot over the aJcshara may not be a depression- in the surface of the 
stone merely due to accident. In consequence, there prevails a certain amount of uncertainty 
with regard to the correct form of the personal names Charhtamula and Chamtisiri. In several 
cases where these names occur, there is no trace of an anusvdra, but as in a few instances such a 
sign can be made out, we are perhaps justified in assuming that its non-occurrence is due to the 
inadvertence so noticeable throughout these records. 

This want of precision becomes especially manifest if we compare the various redactions of 
the inscription recording the grant of a stek by the chief donor, the lady Chamtisiri. It is clear 
that these redactions are all based on the same text, but none of them produces that text without 
some omissions or mistakes. We may refer the reader to the test of C 3 given below with 
the various readings found in the corresponding inscriptions- 
It is difficult to say who is to be held responsible for the negligent treatment which we have 
noticed in these epigraphs. The additional passage found in two of the pillar inscriptions of 
Chamtisiri, namely C 1 and 2, mentions a " Bhadanta Inanda, carrier of the Digha- and the Majj&i* 
ma-nihdya " who acted as the navakammila of the Mahachetiya. In the case of tbc apsidtil temjple 



and other religious works founded by the updsikd Bodhisiri there were even three navakariimikas, 
the ihera* Chamdamukha, Dha&manandi and Naga (F, lines 3 & 4). As the navakammika was 
the monk commissioned "by the Sangha to superintend the foundation (navakamma) dedicated by 
gome lay-member, his responsibility may be supposed to have extended also over the itiscriptional 
records of the deyaihamma. It is, however, quite possible that the author of the inscriptions 
was some other learned member of the Satiffha. We may perhaps assutae that, the text of the 
inscriptions having been fixed, some copyist, either a bhikkhu or a professional writer, was employed 
to prepare one or more copies in the very ornamental writing of the period for the use of the 
stone-mason. At the end of inscription F we find the name of the stone-mason (sela-vadhdki) 
Vidhika recorded immediately after those of the three navakariimikas. It must be admitted 
that, as regards its technical execution, not only this epigraph but also the sixteen a^a&a-pillai: 
inscriptions leave nothing to be desired. It is noteworthy that inscription H which, as we 
saw, must belong to a somewhat later period, shows at once a marked deterioration in technical 

Withreglird to the style of writing us ^d in the Nagarjunikonda inscription* it will suffice 
to refer to the observations made by Dr. Biihler with regard to the inscriptions from Jaggayya- 
peta. 1 Here we wish only to draw attention to the use of la in Sihala-, taldkam > and alamda in 
F, BB 3, and to the occurrence of the following ligatures : dra in Rudradhara? (B 5, line 4), nhd in 
sumnhdnam (F, line 3), yhu in Vinhusirisa, mha in bamha$a (A 3, line 6 ete.) 9 mhi in imamhi 
(A 3, line 2) and mahdchetiyamfii (C 4, line 2 and X, line 8), and tti in nattiya (H, line 8), 

The inscriptions contain th numerical symbols for one, three (F, line 1), four (F, line 1), 
five (E, line 2), six (passim), seven (F, line 3 and H, line 4), eight (B, line 2), ten (passim), seventy 
(B 5, line 6), and hundred (B 5, line 6). 

As regards the language, the following peculiarities may be noted : 
The ri vowel is represented by a in kavaqa (Skt. kriparia) and vasabha (Skt, v^ishabha), but 
elsewhere, by u. Examples : IJtMuno (F, line 2) from Skt. bhartri- ; pituno (F, line 2) from Skt. 
pitri- t bhctiuno (F, line 3), bhdtunam (F, line 2) and bhdtuputdnam (F, line*2) from Skt. bJiratfi- ; 
matuya (F, line 2 and G, line 7) from Skt, mattf- maMmatuMya (F, line 2) from Skt. wa&8- 
matri' >* dhutuya (F, line 3 ; H, line 9) from Skt, duhitri- ; jdm[a]tukasa (B line 1) from Skt, 
7*amari~ / matuk[d] (C 1> line 11 and 2, line 9) from Skt* matrikd. 

We notice Swrabhakti in bJiariyd (passim) from Skt. bhdryd ; mahdchetiya (passim) from Skt. 
*chatiya ; aoh&riya (passim) from Skt, dchdrya ; barisa (F, line 1) from Skt* harsha ; tarisa (F, 
line 1) from Skt. tarsha ; darisana (F, line 1) from Skt, darSana ; and mahds$ndpatini (passim) 
from Skb. pctini. O/. Pischel, Grammatik der Prakrit-Sprachen, 135. 

The p between vowels 
Jeaw$a (passim) from 
(F, line 3) from Skt. 
from Skt. Gopagrdma (?) ; mamtava (E, line 2) and mam$ava (F, line 3) from Skt. 

The media is changed into the tennis, in koth[d]karika* (F, line 2) from Skt. kdshfdffdrika- ; 
mwmtaw (E 5 line 2) from Skt. m&wfapa. But else >vhere mamdava (thrice in F). Cf. also deyat 

-paricMko from Skt. <parityaga-, in the Alluru fragmentary inscription, line 14. 
The tennis has been changed into the media in Pugiydna[m] (E, line 1), but elsewhere Puki- 
ydnam o? Pukiydnam, and sugJidya (G, line 10) from Skt, sukha-. Cf. nigayasa from Skt. nikaya- 
in the Alluru inscription. As regards PuUya and Pugly^ it is, of course, possible that the latter 
is the more correct and original form. May it be conn^p|;ed with Skt. puya**" betel-palm " ? 

1 6. Biihler, Znditchp Pal&ographit, p 44. ~ !"? 


The initial Ji in some personal names appears to have been developed from $. Examples : 
Bammasiri (0 4, line 5) ; Hammasirinika (C 2, lines 5-6 and 7 ; C 4, line 7) ; Haghamna (F, line 2 ) . 
Also, Ayira-hamghdna (C 1, line 11 ; C 2, line 10} from Skt. Arya-sangMnam, But samgham (H, 
line 13) and mah(fohikhu-sd[m]ghasa (E, line 2). 

We wish also to draw attention to the following forms : ayira- (C 1, line 11 ; C 2, line 10) from 
Skt. drya ; lihaya for the more usual lhariya from Skt. bhdryd ; and Chilata (F, line 1) from Skt. 


a. Inscriptions on the ayaia-pillars of the Mahachetiya. 1 

A. 2. East side, second pillar. One large and two small fragments. The large piece Contains 
lines 17 (sidJiam to ~vachhald ma~), line 7 being incomplete. Besides, there is a gap on the right 
hand side by which several aksharas at the end of lines 2-4 and 6 are lost. One of the smaller 
fragments supplies the initial aJcsharas of lines 610, and the other, a few aksharas of lines 78. 
TJie inscription, when entire, must have consisted of 10 lines, 24| inches long. It records the 
gift of a pillar by the Makatalavari Chamtisiri (name lost), the sister of King Chamtamilla and 
the paternal aunt of King Siri-Virapurisadata. Date lost. 

A 3 East side, third pillar. Inscription in two pieces. One large piece contains the in- 
scription almost complete except the middle portion of lines 1-2. This missing portion is 
supplied by the smaller fragment containing 17 aksharas of the first line. The inscription consists 
partly of 10 lines, 25 inches long. It records the donation of a pillar by Chamtisiri (of. sub A, 2). 
Date, the 6th year of King Siri-Virapurisadata in last short line. 

A. 4. East side, fourth pillar. Two large and one smaller fragment. The one large piece 
contains 11. 15, incomplete and partly obliterated. The other contains lines 511, wz.> 
the latter half of the inscription, almost complete, although partly indistinct. The small frag- 
ment supplies the initial aksharas of lines ] to 3. The inscription must have consisted of 11 lines, 
measuring from 21 22 inches in length. Donation of a pillar by Chamtisiri (of. sub A. 2). Date 
as above sub A. 3 in last short line. 

B 1. South side, first pillar. One fragment, containing lines 16 in their full length, but 
with central portion completely obliterated. Length of lines 16 inches. Name of donor and date 


B 2 South side, second pillar. Inscription complete in 7 lines, measuring 20 to 22 inches 
in kngth ' Gift of a pillar by the Mahatalavan A<Javi-Chatisiri, the daughter of King Chamtamula. 
Date as above. 

B 3 South side, third pillar. Complete in 10 lines, measuring 21 to 23| inches in length. 
A few 'aksharas at the end of lines 5-9 missing. Donation of a pillar by Chamtisiii^ika, evidently 
the same person as Chamtisiri (of. sub A. 2). Date as above in last short line. 

B 4 South side, fourth pillar. Complete in 7 lines, 17| to 22 inches. Gift of a stone pillar 
by the" MaMs&ndpatmi Chula-Cha{m]tisiri^ika. Date as abo^e in 6th and short 7th line. 

B. 5. South side, fifth pillar. Complete in 7 lines, 20 to 22 inches. Gift of a pillar by 

Eudradharabhat[a]rika. Date as above in last short line. 

Besides theayaJba-piUar inscriptions enumerated here, twenty-three small fragments have been found wWcfe 
must have belonged to this class of inscriptions. 


C. 1. West side, first pillar. Two pieces : the smaller piece, containing lines 1 to 6 (1. 1 com- 
plete, 1. 2 with, the first akshara, missing, 11. 36 incomplete), fits wedge-like into the larg'er one, 
which consists of 11. 3 to 13, 11. 3 to 6 supplying the missing portions of the upper piece* The 
inscription, when complete, consisted of 13 lines, 21 to 23 inches long. Donation of a pillar by 
Chamtisiri. Date as above. 

C. 2. West side, second pillar. Two pieces. The larger piece contains II. 1 <? complete, 
besides the initial and concluding portions of 11. 79. The smaller piece supplies the middle 
portions of these three lines and the remainder of the inscription, viz., 11. 10 12 entire. Twelve 
lines, 19$ to 22 inches long. Gift of a stone pillar by MaMdevl Bapisiriiidka, the daughter of 
Hamroasirinika and wife of King Siri-Virapurisadata. Date as above in 11. 11 12, the concluding 
line being a short one. 

G. 3. West side, third pillar. Two pieces. The smaller fragment has 6 lines, viz, 9 L 1 com- 
plete, whereas considerable portions of 11. 2 6 are missing and only a few aJcsharas at the beginning 
of L 6 remain. The larger fragment contains the missing parts of 11. 2 6 and, besides, 11. 7 15 
entire. Thirteen lines, 20 to 22 inches long. Gift of a pillar by Cha[m]tisiri Date as above in 
last short line. 

C. 4. West side, fourth pillar. Complete in eight lines, 19 to 22 inches long* Gift of a pillar 
by MaJiadevl Chhathisiri, the daughter of Hammasiri[nika] and wife of .King Siri-Virapurisadata. 
Date as above in concluding line. 

C. 5. West side, fifth pillar. Complete in five lines, 19| to 2QJ inches in length. Gift of a 
stone pillar by the wife of Mahakamclasiri. Date as above. 

D, 2, North side, second pillar. One piece containing 11. 1 5 complete, tho initial and 
concluding portions of 11. 6 7, the first six aJcsharas of line 8 and only one akshara opening 
Jine 9. The inscription must have recorded the gift of a pillar by Chaifttisiri, Date lost. 

D. 3. North side, third pillar. Only a fragment containing 1L 1 2 almost complete, and 
besides, a few aJcsharas of line 3. Date lost. 

D. 4. North side, fourth pillar. Complete in ten linos, 19J to 21J inches long. Gift of a 
piUar by Cha[m]tisiri. Date as above in last short line. 

X. Original position unknown. Complete in nine lines, 24 to 25 inches in length. Donation 
of a pillar by Chamtisiri. Date as above. 

6. Chetiya-ghara inscriptions. 

E. Inscription on floor of apsidal shrine, No. I, immediately to the east of the Mahachetiya. 
Inscription complete in two lines, measuring 14 feet 5 inches. Average size of afaharas ^ to f 
inch. Inscription well preserved except first portion of the second line. It records the dedication 
of a dketiya-ghara or stone mamtava, (Skt. mayfapa) provided with a cloister (chatusala) at the 
foot <f the Maliachetiya by the Hahatalavan Chamtisiri, mentioned in several of the aydb-pillar 
inscriptions, who here refers toKiiig Siri- Virapurisadata as her son-in-law, for the benefit of the 
Masters of the Aparamahavinaseliya sect. Date, the eighteenth year of King Siri~Virapurisa4ate 

F. Inscription on floor of the apsidal shrine, No, II, on the mound NAarSUabSflu, consisting of 
three long-lines, 18 feet 4 inches to 19 feet in length, and of a fourth short Hue of 1 foot 9 inches 
Average size of obftaw f to f iuch, The inscription is fairly ^eU preserved; here and there 
Borne dtiharas have been lost. After a lengthy invocation of the Buddha it records the foundation 
riaoA^-ffiore and of various other religious edifices by an uvasiM (Skt. upasika) named 
Bodhisrn, together with her relatives, for the benefit of the fraternities (Obriyo) of the Cevlonese* 
monks who had converted a number of countries which are enumerated at great Wilt 
Date, the Uurteenth year of King Mathariputa (=Sm-V!rapErisadata.'<)* * 


e. Detached pillar inscriptions. 

G. Inscription on a stone pilkr or stele decorated with carvings, at a distance of about two 
furlongs to the north-west of the Mahachetiya. It consists of tea lines of. writing. The inscribed 
surface shows three cracks and the right hand portion damaged. Some three or four aksaaras 
at the end of 11. 1 5 are lost. Lines 9 and 10 are partly obliterated. The lines, when 
complete, must have been 15 inches in length. The average size of the aksharas is | to J inch. 
The lettering has become worn owing to exposure to the weather. The inscription records the 
foundation of a whara by Mahddevi Bhatideva, who was the wife (?) of King Siri*Virapurisadata 
and the mother of King Ehuvula(?)-Ch[m]UmuIa. The date in 1L 910 is no longer legible. 

H, Inscription on a stone pillar or stele found at Kottaxnpalugu to the north of Nagar- 
jtmikonda* It consists of fourteen lines of writing, measuring about 12 inches in length. The 
inscription is fairly well preserved, but here and there some aksharas have become indistinct, 
The execution is fair, but less ornamented than in the earlier inscriptions. The size of the 
aksharas is from f to | inch ; they miss the long-d?awn strokes of the earlier inscriptions and the 
lines are placed close together. The inscription records the foundation of a mhara by MaMdevl 
Koda[ba"|Iisiri, who was the daughter of King Siri-Virapurisadata, sister of King Ehuvula- 
Cha[m]tamula, and wife of the Maharaja of Vanavasa. It is dated in the llth year of King 

d. Inscriptions on sculptures, 

J. Inscription along the lowar edge of a frieze showing the adoration of the Wheel of the Law 
(first sermon at Benares) in the centre and an amatory couple or mithuna on both sides. These 
three scenes are separated and flanked by railings. The frieze is supported by a row of crouch- 
ing lions. The inscription consists of two lines, measuring 38 and 16 inches in length. The 
execution is fair and the preservation, satisfactory. The average size of the aksfraras is J inch. 
The inscription opens with an invocation of the Buddha and records the donation of a slab and 
of a coping stone at the Mahachetiya by an individual of the name of Chhadakapavaticlu and by 
his housewife Padumavani together with their sons and daughters. No date. 

K. Inscription along the lower edge of a long sculptured beam found on the inound Polu- 
gubo<Ju. It consists of one line of. writing, the beginning and concluding portions of which are 
almost entirely obliterated. The inscription, as far as preserved, measures nearly five feet in 
length. It records the donation of a slab (?) by a person whose name 'is lost, together with his 
sons, daughters, sons-in-law, grandsons, granddaughters, relatives and friends. The preserved 
portions contain no date. 


AyaJca-pillar inscription 03. 

The text of the SyaXw-pillar inscription recording the donation of suck a, pillar by Cha[rh]- 
tisiri occurs in nine redactions, namely, A 2, 3 and 4, B 3, C land. 3, D 2 and 4, and X, seven of 
which are complete and two (A 2 and D 2) are incomplete. In C 1 there is an addition at the end, 
whereas in X the invocation of the Buddha opening the document has been OTaitted. It will be 
eu&cient to reproduce the text-only once, as given in C 3, noting* such vatiae let&ones as axe 
found in the other redactions; The additional passage of C 1 will be'giVen separately* 




(1. 1) Sidliam namo 1 bhagavato devaraja-sakatasa supabudha-bodhino* savamfiuDO 
(L 2) sava-sat-anukampakasa jita-raga-dosa-mclia-vipamutasa mahaga$i-vasabha~ (1. 3) [gath]diia- 
hathisa saniiaa-sam[budb]asa dhatuvara-parigahitasa mah[a]chetiye 3 maharajasa (L 4 ) Virupa- 
khapati-MaMsena-parigahitasa 4 Mra^a-koti 5 -go-satasaliasa-hala-sa- (L 5) tasaha[sa-]dayisa 
savathesu apatihata-samkapasa VasitMputasa 6 Ikhakusa (1. 6) Siri-Ckatamulasa 7 sodari 
bhagini rarimo Macjhariputasa 8 Siri-Virapurisadatasa (1. 7) pituchha mahasenapatisa* 
mahatalavarasa Vasidhlputasa 10 Pukiyanaih 11 Kamdasiri[sa] xa (1. 8) bhariya samara- 
b'ampi^aija-kava^Mranijal^Mm^^ (L 9) chhirfina 16 - 

dhara-padayini sava-sadhu-vachhala maJiadanapatini 17 mahatalavari Khamdasagaramnaka- 18 
mata (L 10) Ch[a]fcisiri 19 apano ubhaya-kulasa atichliitam-anagata-vatamanakauam 80 
parinajnetimam 21 (L 11) ubhaya-loka-luta-sukh-avaliathanaya 22 atano oha nivSjjia- 
saihpati-sainpadake (1. 12) sava-loka-hita-sukli-avaliathanaya 24 cha imara khaiiibhtaiii 
patithapitam ti (I. 13) Eariifio Siri-Virapurisadatasa sava 6 ya pa 6* 11 
diva 10 

1 Invocation of Buddha omitted in X. 

8 8u$abudka-1)odhino up to aammasatfibudhaaa omitted in B 3, 1, 1 ; C 1, L 1 ; D 2, 1. 1 ; B 4, 1. I. 
8 imammhi maMchetiye in A 4, L 3 ; D 4, L 1 (mahacheffye) ; imamhi mah&chetiye in A 3, 11. 2-3 ; D 2 1 1 i 
mah&chetfye in A 2, 1. 3. " ' 

* Vif&pa^pati.Mahas*m-parigMtaaa~ omitted in B 2, 1. 2. 

after -parigahitasa in A 2, II 3-4 ; A 3, 1L 3-4, A 4, L 4 ; -pangahftasa in B 3, L 2 ; D 4, L 2. 

* &trafJipa.fa)#- in A 2, L 4 ; A 3, L 4 ; B 3, L 3 ; D 4, L 3. 

Fcwi^f|MtoainA3,L5; A4,1.5; B3.L4; X,1.3; VfaethSputasa in 1, L 4 ; FfettH* in 
* in D 4, L 4. > "1 ** 

2, 1. 5 ; A 3, L 5 s A 4, L 5 ; 1, L 5 ; D 4, L 4; X, L 3. 

5; D4,L5 ; M a$hariputaa* in A 4, L 6 j X, L 3. 
omitted in X, L 4. 

B 3, 1. 6 ; X, L 4. 
"Z**Mm8ainA4,l. 7 ; D 4,1. 6 j X, 1. 4. Omitted in A 3, L 6. 

-t?fja-i I iA3,L6;.ca ? y-a*a.inA4,L7;B3,L6 ; Cl,1.7;D2,1.5:D4 L6-X 1 5 
" twitemiio in A 4, 1. 7 ; -vel&mi. in B 3, L 7 ; D 2, 1. 6. ' 

Bed ! po(% a ,theadingofA2,L7 5 A4,U.7.8;B3,L7;Cl L7-D2>6iB4 I 
^WainA27 ^ L6; 

tfnt omitted in B 3, L7;D2, L6;D4, L 7. 

raA ?W ia.inA3,L7 J A4,].8;C 1 ,1.8 ! X,i6. JTAfa. in B A 1. 7 . D 4 L 7 
Oto**WtoA8L7,A4,1.9,Ol.L8,X.L. CUMMrf^ in B 3, L 8 ' 

3, L 8 ; D 4, L 8 ; X, L 7. 

j; 1.7, 
7 . Omitted jn B 3 L 






fi : vfy&^ffiW% 

"' '' ; . .-..< I \ ' * l *8r- 

7 :, 



*MCJei .; 









Success. Adoration to the Lord, the Supreme Buddha, honoured by the Lord of the gods, 
omniscient, compassionate towards all sentient beings, freed from lust, hatred and delusion which 
have been conqiicred by him, the bull and musk-elephant among great spiritual leaders, the 
perfectly Enlightened One, who is absorbed by the best of elements (i.e., by Nirvana). At the 
Mahachetiya, the MaMlalavan Cha[m]tisiri (who is) the uterine sister of Maharaja Yasithaputa 
Ikhaku Siri-Ch5rm]tamula -absorbed by Mahasena the lord of Virupakhas, the giver of crores 
of gold, hundred thousands of kine, and hundred thousands of ploughs (of land), unimpeded of 
purpose in all (his) aims, (she who is) the paternal aunt of King Madharlputa Siri-Yirapurisadata, 
(she who is) the wife of the Mahasenapati, the Mah&tcdavara, Vasithlputa Kamdasiri of (the 
family of) the Puklyas ; and the mother of Khamdasagaramnaka, she who, out of compassion 
for $ramaru&, Brahmins, and those that are miserable, poor and destitute, is wont to bestow 
on them a matchless and ceaseless flow 1 of Velamic gifts, she, the great mistress of munificence, 
devoted to all the virtuous, having due regard for the past, future and present (members) of boh 
the houses to which she belongs, for the attainment of welfare and happiness in both the worlds 
and in order to attain herself the bliss of Nirvana and for the attainment of welfare and 
happiness by all tjae world, has erected thispflkr. In the 6th year of (the reign of) Uing Siri- 
Virapurisadata, th 6th fortnight of the rainy season, the 10th day. 

Additional Passage in C I. 2 

(L 10) achariyanaih. Aparamaharmas[e]liyana[ih] suparigahitam imam mahachetiya- 
navakamma [m] (1. 11) Taiimagama-vathavanam Digha-Ma jhima-pa[ni]cha-matuka"OSilva 3 - 
vachakauam achariyanam Ayira-hamghanafm] (L 12) a[m]tevasikena Dlglia-Majhima* 
nikaya-dharena bh&jamt-Anadena 4 nithapitam imam navakamam (L 13) khanibhi 
cha thapita ti ramno Siri-Virapurisadatasa sava 6 va pa 6 diva 10 


J For the benefit of the Masters of the AparamahavinaseUya sect this pious foundation of the 
Mahachetiya has been completed by the Reverend JLnanda, who knows the Dlgha- and the Maj* 
jhima-nikayas by heart, (who is) a disciple of the Masters of the Ayira-hamgha (Ski Aryasangka) 
who are resident in Pariirjagam.a and who are preachers and preceptors of the IKgha, the 
Majjhima~[nikaya] an*J of the five M atiukas* This pious work, the Mahachetiya, was completed 
and the pillars were erected. In the 6th year of (the reign of) 'Bang Siri-Virapurisadata, 
'the 6th fortnight of the rainy season, the 10th day. 


* (L 1) Sidhath maharajasa .... -sena-parigahitasa Agiho-(L 2) t-i.g;thorQ$rYaji ...... [hi] 

rana koji-go-sata* (L 3) sahasa-hala. . . .savathesti apati- (1. 4) hata-sa[ih]ksipa9a- 

1 My translation is based on the assumption that we mus 

3 Cf. the corresponding passage in lino 8 of the ai/aia-pillar inscription 2, in/r a 

* Read : .&**&*. (G 2, L 9). 

* Boftd : bhadamt.Jn<irtde (0 2, 1. 10). 



Chatamulasa bhagini- (L 5) ya mahatalava[rasa] ---- [si]risa bha[riya]ya ma- (1. 6) ] 
variya ____ mah[a]r[a]jasa 

'[The inscription is too fragmentary to admit of translation. It, evidently, opens wi 
string of epithets eulogizing King Siri-Cha[m]tamula. The donor, whose name is los 
perhaps, a daughter of Cha[mltisirL] 

Ayalca-pillar inscription B 2, 


(L 1) Sidharh mahlrajasa Asamedha-yajisa aneka-hiramnakoti-go-satasahasa,-hal; 
(L 2) sahasa-padayisa savathesu apatihata-samkapasa Vasithlputasa Ikhakusa 
Siri-Cha[m]taraulasa duhuta raiiino Siri-Virapurisadatasa bhagini mahusenapatisa maha- 
talavarasa mahadarhdanayakasa. Dhanakauaiii Khamdavisakhaiiinakasa bhaya mahati 
(L 5) A(Javi-Chatisiri apano ubhaya-kulam parinameftujna atano cha ubhaya-loka-hita-suk 
hathanaya (L 6) bhagavato samma-sabudhasa 2 dhatuvara-parigahltasa, Mahachetlye 
kharhbham patidhapamta 1 ti (1. 7) ramno Siri-Virapurisadatasa saiiiva 6 va 
diva 10 


Success. The MaMtalavari Adavi-ChStisiri (who is) the daughter of the MaliSrftja VHsij:. 
Ikhfiku Siri-Cha[rn]tamula s the offerer of ASvamedha, the giver of many crorcs o 
hundred thousands of kine, and hundred thousands of ploughs (of land), of unimpeded p 
in all (his) aims ; (who is) the sister of King Siri-Virapurisadata, (and who u*) the wife c 
Mahasenapati, the Mahatalavara, the MaMda^andyaka Khariidavisakhamnaka (of the J 
of the Dhanakas, having due regard for both the houses to which she belongs and for the t 
ment by herself of welfare and happiness in both the worlds, has erected this pillar at the Ma 
tiya of the Lord, the supreme Buddha who is absorbed by the best of elements (i 
Nirvana), In the 6th year of (the reign of) King Siri-Viraptirisadata, the 6th fortnight < 
rainy season, the 10th day, 

jLyaka~pillar inscription B 4. 

(L 1) Sidham aamo bhagavato devaraja-s^katasa supabudha-bo[dhino*] gava; 
sava-sa[t--](L 2)uukampakasa jita-rSga-dosa-moha-vipamxitasa mahagfujd-va 

gamdha-ha[thisa] (1. 3) saiiiiua-sariibugasa* dhatuvara-parigahitasa mahacheti[ye] Kulah; 


[ih]' balika (L 4) mahasenapatisa mahatalavarasa Vasithlputasa HiraikfiakaBiiiii J 
dachalikiremma^akafsa] (L 5) bhaya mahasenapatini Chula-Chatisiririika apano ubhay* 


Hta-sukha-ni- (i 6) va^thanaya ima* sela-kharhbham patithapitarii ti ramfio 
Virapurisadatasa (L 7) sArhva 6 va pa 6 dira 10 


Success ! Adoration to the Lord, the Supreme Buddha, honoured by the Lord of the 
^lightened wifch perfect enlightenment, omniscient, compassionate towards all sentient I 
freed from lust, hatred and delusion conquered .by him, the bull and musk-elephant amon* 
pptol leaders, ab^rbed by the boat of elements (i.e., Nirvana), At the 












Mahasendpatini Chula-Cb&tisiri^ika, (who is) a daughter of (the family of) the Kulahakas, anil 
the wife of the Mahasenapati, the MaMtalavam, Vasithiputa Khamdachalikiremmanaka of (the 
family of) the Hiramnakas, for the attainment by herself of welfare and happiness in both the 
worlds and of Nirvana has erected this stone pillar. In the 6th year of (the reign of) King Siri- 
Virapurisadata, the 6th fortnight of the rainy season, the 10th day. 

AyaJca-pillar inscription B -5. 

(L I) Sidhaan' namo bhagavato devaraja-sakatasa supabudha-bodhino savamnuno sava-sat- 
[anu-*] (1, 2) kampakasa jita-raga-dosa-moka-vipanixitasa mahagani-vasabha-gamdha-hadhisa 1 
(1. 3} samma-sambudtbasa dhatxivara-parigahitasa mahachetiye Ujanika 2 maharabaJika 8 (L 4) 
mahadew Rudradharabhat[a]rika imam sela-khambham apano hita-snkha-niva^iadhanaya* 
patith[a]pitarh (L 5) mahafcalavarihl cha Plkiyanam Chamtisirinlkahi imasa mahaviharasa 
mahachetiyam 5 (L 6) samuthapiyamane mahatalavarfa ubhayita dinari-masaka satari-satam: 
100[+*]70 6 khambho cha (L 7) ramno Siri-Virapurisadatasa saiiiva 6 va pa 6 diva 10 


^ Success ! Adoration to the Lord., etc. (see above, sub B 4). At the Mahachetiya the MahadevI 
Rudradharabhatarika, a Maharaja's daughter from Ujjeni (Skt. Ujjayini) has erected this stone 
pillar for the attainment by herself ol welfare and happiness and Nirvana. And while the Maha- 
chetiya of this Great Vihara was being raised by the ladies, the Mahatalavaris, Chamtisiri^ika of 
(the family of) the Pukiyas, one hundred and seventy (100+70) dindri-masakas and a pillar have 
been raised by the HaMtalavari.* I& the 6th year of (the reign of) King Siri-Virapurisadata, 
the 6th fortnight of the rainy season, the 10th 

AyaJka-pillar inscription 2. 

(1.1) Sidhani namo bhagavato devar&ja-sakatasa samma-samma-sambudhasa 7 dhatuvara- 
(1. 2) parigahitasa 8 Mahachetiye maharajasa Virupakhapati-Mahasena-parigahitasa (L 3) Agihot- 
Agithogithoma 9 - Vajapey-lsamedha-yajisa hirana-koti-go-sata- (L 4) sahasa-haJa-satasahasa- 
padayisa savathesu apatihata-samka,pasa (L 5) Vasithiputasa Ikhakusa Siri-Chatamiilasa 
sodaraya bhaginiya Hamma- (L 6) smmmkaya balika ramno Siri-Virapurisadatasa bhaya 
mahadevi Bapisirinika (L 7) apano mataram Haiiimasmpkaiii parinamatuna 10 atane 11 cha 
Bivaiaa-sampati-sampadake (L 8) imam sela-thambham patithapitam achari[ya]nam Apara* 
mahavinaseliyanam suparigahita[m*] (L 9) imam Mahachetiya-navakamam Pam^agama- 
vathavanaih Dlgha-Majhima-pamda 12 - m[a]tuka-desa[ka^va*][chakai}am] (1. 10) arayana[m] 13 ' 

1 Bead : hathisa, 

2 Bead: Ujenika, 

8 Bead : maharaja-baliM. 
4 Bead : nivayathanaya, 
* Bead : mahachetiye. 

6 The meaning probably is that the Queen Budradharabha^arika, besides dedicating a pillar 
a sum of 170 dinari-masahas towards the expenses incurred by hamtisiri for the building of the 

7 sct'fhma- has been written twioe by mistake. 

8 Perhaps pcerigamhifasa. 

^ * Tho two aics'lmras gi flia have been written tivioe b,y mistake. 

10 Bead : parinametuna(m). 

11 Bead: atom* 

11 Bead : pamcka {<?/. above, 01,1 11}, 
11 Bend r 


Ayira-taghana[ih] amtevasikena Dlgha-Manigaya x -dharena bhadariit2xiaxhdeiia (I 11) 

nithapita[ih] ima[m] navakamafih] mahachetiya[m] kharnbha cha thapita ti raihuo Sari- 
Viripurisadatasa* (1. 12) sathva 6 v pa 6 diva 10 


Success ! Adoration to the Lord, the supreme Buddha, honoured by the Lord of the gods, 
absorbel by the best of elements. At the Maliachatiya the Hahfidavi BapasiriQika (wfi u) the 
daughter of Hammasirimnika, the uterine sister of Maharaja Visithtputa Ikhiiku Siri-Gh&tamula, 
etc., (see sub C 3) and (who is) the wife of King Siri-Virapurisadata, with due ropard for 
iter mother Harhmasirimka, and for the sake of attainment by herself of the bliss of Nirvana, haa 
erected this stone pillar. For 'the benefit of the Masters of the Aparamah&vinaacliya ftect has 
this pious foundation of the Mahachetiya been accepted. This picas foundation, consisting 
of the Mahachetiya, has been completed and the pillars have been set tip by the Reverend lnanda > 
who knows the Digha- and the Majjhima~(nikayas) (?) by heart, (who is) a diseiplo of the Musteis 
of the Arya-sangha who are resident in Paiiinagama and who are preachers ami preceptors of 
the DSjjfAa-anA the Majjhima-(niMya$), and of the five Matiikas, IB, the 6th year ef (the reign 
of) King Siri-Virapuriaadata, the 6th fortnight of the rainy season, the 10th day. 

JiyaJca-pillar inscription C 4, 

^ (1. iy Sidhain namo bhagavato devaraja-sakatasa Bazhma-saibbudhasa dhatuvara* 
parigamhitasa (1. 2) mahadetiyaihhi 8 maharajasa Virfipakhapati-MahaBeiia-parigfthltaw 
Agihata- 4 (L 3) Aptkoma-Vajap^-i^^ (I. 4) 

sahasa-padayisa savathesu apatihata-sanikapasa Vasithlputasa Ikh&kusa (I 5) Siri* 
Chamtamulasa sodaia-bhaginiya Hariimasariya 5 balika mahSrajasa (L 6) Ma^harlputasa 
Siri-Yirapurisadatasa bhaya mahadevi Chhathisiii apano (I 7) mttaraA HaduuairiQikaxta 
parinametuna atanam 6 cha niv&^-saiiipati-earhpadake imaA bhaihkhaTti 7 (L 8) 
pitain maharajasa Siri-Vir^purisadatasa sava 6 va pa 6 dSva ft 10 


Success ! Adoration to the Lord, <*c.,(see above, sub 2) the MahSdevI Chha^hisiri (Skt s 
th^ (who w the daughter of Hammasiri, the titettoe aiater of Uahtrlja VSaithlputa Ikhlku 
Sm-Chamtemiila, etc (see above, sub C 3) and (who fe) the wife of MaharSja Ma^harlputa Siii- 
Virapunsada^ with due regard for her mother Hammasir^kli and for the sake of ttMnmttt 
Jy herself of the bliss of Nirva^, has erected this pillar. In the 6th year of (the reiyn of) King 
Sin^Virapurisadata, the 6th fortnight of the rainy season, the 10th day, / ? 

inscription C 5, 

(1. 1) Sidham namo bhagavato ^ma-sambutdha^sadhatuvara 

5 Read Difffa-MajUma-niMya-dharena (c/. above, C 1 1 
*Bea<*; 8iriVwa * '* 
Bead : wMtfotiyamki* 

4 P^ead : AgiJiot*A* t 

6 Kead : &ir$ya. 
Kead.: atano. 
1 Head : 


bhaya inahasenapatisa mahatalavarasa Viiihusmsa mata inahatalavari apano (1. 4} ubhaya- 
kulam parinametu[na*] atano ubhaya-loka-hita-sukha-nivaijathaya cha imaiii (L 5) sela- 
khambham patithapitam maharajasa Siri-Virapurisadatasa samva 6 va pa 6 diva 10 


Success ! Adoration to the Lord, the Supreme Buddha, absorbed by the best of elements. 
At the Mahachetiya the Mah'dalamn (who is) the wife of the Mahasenapati, the Mahatalavara 
Vasithiputa Mahakamdasiii of (the family of) the Pukiyas and (who is) the jnother of the MahS* 
s&napati, the MaMtalavara Yinhusiri (Skt. Yish$u4rl), with due regard to both the families to 
which she belongs, and for the sake of her own" welfare and happiness in both the worlds and 
Nirvana, has erected this stone pillar. In the 6th year of (the reign of) Maharaja Siri-Vira- 
purisadata, the 6th fortnight of the rainy season, the 10th day. 

first Apsidal Temple inscription E. 

(L 1) Sidhamnamo bhagavato Budhasa choti/a-ghara maharajasa Virtpakhapati*Maha- 
sena-parigahitasa Agihot-[I]githoma-Vajapey-Asamedha-yajisa aneka-hirana-koti-go- 

Sfvtasaha3a-hala-satasa[hasa*]-padayisa savathesu apatihata-sainkapasa Vasethiputasa Ikhakulasa 1 
Siri-Chatamiilasa sahodar[a] - bhagini mahatalavarasa - Vasethiputasa Pugiyana[m*] 
Khamdasirisa bhariyfa] mahatalavari Khanidasagaramnaga-m[a]ta Chatisiri apano jam- 
[a]ttikasa rano M[]tliariputasa Ikh[a]kunani Siri-Virapuiisadatasa ayu-radhanike 
vejayike (1. 2) apano cha ubhaya-[loka-]hita-sukha-[uivai?athai3aya samma-sariibudhasa 
,dha-] ft uu-parigahitasa raahachetiya-padamule 8 pavaiitanaih nana-desa-samanagatanarh 
sava-sadhunarii mahabhikhu-sa[m]ghasa apa[no cha u-]bhaya-lodasa aticbhita[m-]anagata- 
vatamanake nikapanike cha pamametunam Aparamahavinaseliy[a]narix parigahe sava* 
myuta[m] chatusala-parigahitam 4[m] patith[a]pitam ramno Siri-Vira- 
purisadatasa samvachharaiii athara sarii 10[+*]8 hemanita-pakhaiii chhatharh 6 divasam 
pamchamaiii 5 sava-satanam hit[a]ya sukhaya hotu ti 


Success ! Adoration to the Lord Buddha. A chetiya-gJiara (dto%a-hall). Chatisiri (who is) 
the uterine sister of Maharaja Vasethiputa Siri-Chatamuk-of the house of Ikhaku, who is 
favoured (absorbed ?) by Mahasenaj the lord of Virupakhas, the offerer of Agnihotra, Agnishto- 
ma,Vajap5ya and Asvamedha, the giver of many crores ol gold, hundred thousands of Mne, and 
hundred thousands of ploughs (of land) and who is of unimpeded purpose in ail (his) aims, (who 
is) the wife of Vasettiiputa Khamdasiri of (the family of) the Pugiyas and (who is) the mother of 
Khamdasagaramnaga, for the longevity and for the victory of her son-in-law, King Matbati- 
puta, Siri-Virapurisadata of the house of Ikhaku and for the attainment by herself of welfare 
"and happiness in both the worlds and of Nirvana, having due regard to the past, future and present 
bliss (?) of the great community of Buddhist . monks consisting of all the holy men who have 
renounced the world and who have penetrated (?) into various countries, and of botfc the houses 
to which she herself "belongs, has erected a stone shrine surrounded by a cloister and provided 

i Probably Ikhabu-kulaact. 

1 The afoJutra* placed between square brackets arc tUl partly taraceable, 

* Tbe atehara ha is written under the lioQ. 

* Bead : 


with everything at the foot of the Mahachetiya for the benefit of the Masters belonging to the 
sect of the Aparamahavmaseliyas. In the eighteenth year, a mo 18, of King Siri-Virapurisadata, 
}n the sixth 6th fortnight of winter, on the fifth 5th day. May it be for tjie welfare and 
happiness of all sentient beings. 

Second dpsidal Temple inscription I. 


(1. 1) Sidhaih namo bhagavato Ikhalm-raja-pavara-risi-sata-pabhava-vamsa-aambhavasa 
deva-manusa-sava-sata-hita-sukha-maga-desikasa iita-kama-kodha-bhaya-harisa-tariBa-moha- 
dosa-sada(il)pita 1 -Mara-bala-dapa-mana-pasamana-karasa dasa-bala-nmha(fi)balasa a$ha[i;h r | 
ga-maga-dhai&achaka-pavatakasa chaka-lakhana-sukumS-ra-sujrita-charayasa taru^a-divasa- 
kara-pabhasa sarada-sasi-soma-darisanasa sava-loka-chita-mahitasa Budhnsa rarfmo 
M[atha]riputasa- 10[+*K' hemarata-pakhaiii chhathaih 6 divasam teraiii lO[+*]3. . ,ta [ra] 
jachanyaimm 8 Kasmira-Gamdhaxa-Chm^ 

Da[mila-Pa]]ura- 4 Tambapamiii"dlpa-pas[a]dukanam , thtriyanarii Taihbapaf'rhjimkanurii 
euparigahe (L 2) Siripavate Vijayapuriya-puva-disa-bhSge Clinla-Dharimiapirlyaxh 
clietiya-gharam sapata-saiiitharaih sachetlyam sava-niyutam karitaiii uvasikilya Bodhisiriva 
apano bhatuno Budhi[m]nakasa pitnno cha se Govagama-vathavaaa Hevata-gahapatina 
matuya cha sa Budhamnikaya bhatunaiii cha se Chamdaraukhanasa Karuxhbudhina'sa 
Hagharhnasa bhaginlya cha Eevatitiinikaya bhatu-putanam cha Maha-Cliarhdamukha-G^hulj- 
Chamdamukhanam bhagineyanam cha Maha-Mula-Chula-MulaBark apano cha ayakaaa 
Miilavaniyasa ayikaya Budhavaniki[naya] matulaka- 5 [sa cha] ko^hfftJkurikaHa Bhadasa 
BodMsarhinasa Ghamdasa Bodhikasa mahamatukaya Bhadi[la]ya Boclliiya** clia apa;0 
pitunc Budhi[va]niyasa m[Stuya] . . . . (L 3) bhatuno Mxilasa bhagintawfa* Budhwimikliya 

Mulamnikaya Nagabodhinikaya cha dhutuya Vlramnikaya putanath Nagatfmasa VlraihaaVa 
cha sumnhanam cha Bhadasiri-Mislnam e^am-eva cha Kulaha-vihare ohetiya-ghatarii Slhak- 
vihare bodhi-rukha-paado Maha-Dhammaginyaih ovarako 1 mahuvi[M*]re marfi<java- 
khambho Devagiriyam padhana-sala Puvasele tajikam a[laih]da- 6 ma[iii*]4avo cha Kaii^akasele 
mahachetiyasa puva-dare sela-mamcjavo Hirumuthuve ovaraka tim^ti 3 Papilayaiii ovaraka 
sata 7 Puphaginya[m] sela-mamdavo Dhaijb 7 ...... vihare 6elarna[rh]<JavQ etarii cha savaxh 

warivamiji- 8 []dhu-vagasa 9 achamta- 10 hita-snkhaVa thavitaih savaFsa] ch^ 

lokasa imaih navakammam timhi na.vaka[ih]mikehi karitam Charlidamtikha-therena chi 
(L 4) Dhammanamdi-therena oha Naga-therena cha sela-vacjhlkisa Vidhikasa kaiiimarii ti 

1 [I \vould read ^moJia-dosasa dapita-Mura -Ed.] ' ' ...... T -*--***. 

'The aksMra fb , of Maputo,* is partly preserved. After this word some five or aix oUharaa are Icwt 
In the absence of any traces of t strokes, the missing word cannot have been Siri.PurMata,*. In all probabiUtv 
it -was sawuooMorotfi, followed by a word expressing " fourteenth " (chodnfo 1). prooaDiuty 

-* Perhaps bhadaihla.ra.j-&cha,riyancuii ? 

The words which I read Favono-DamiZa-Patoa are not q-uite certain. The Da of Damila i 8 .tfl] l eff ibl<i 
wl the ong-drawn top strokes of the remaining two afeWo, have led me t the co n j 9 otural llfl^ ! 
body of the otoftara being partly preserved. The fa of Palura IB conjectural 8 ^' W 

The afoto-aw of maiufafawa is conjectural. As the word is followed by several 1*1*0! , ,, 
gen^ve ce, one would espect .MU**. but the dUbr. ka show 9 no trace of IT S " 

^ -^ 

ttManw are lodt atter 
* The afahara tafo is conjectural Perhaps ta*a 



Success! Adoration to the Lord Buddha, born of a race (whieh is) sprang from hundreds of 
sages and excellent kings of Ikhaku's lineage ; who has shown the road to welfare and happiness 
to go^s and men and all beings, who has conquered, and put down the pride and. arrogance of 
M&ia's hosts called lust, anger, fear, desire, thirst, delusion, and hatred ; who, great of power, 
is possessed of the ten powers, who has set in motion the Wheel-of-the-Law (pertaining to) the 
Eight-fold Path, whose graceful and well-formed feet (are marked witKj the sign of the Wheel, 
whose splendour is that of the newly risen sun, whotfe sight is lovely as that of the autumnal 
moon, and who is magnified by the thoughts of all the world. In the fourteenth Mth^(year) 
of King Mathariputa, in the sixfch Sfch fortnight of winter, on the thkteenth-7-13th day. For 
the benefit of the ..... masters and of the fraternities (of monks) of Taiiibapamria (Ceylon) who 

have converted Kashmir, Gandhara, China, Chil&ta (=Skt. Kirata), Tosali, Avaramta (=Skt, 
Aparanta), Vanga, Vanavasi, Yavana(?}, Damila (?), Palura (?) and the Isle of Ta^mbapaiii^i 
(Ceylon). At Siripavata (=Skt. Srlparvata) on the east side of Vijayapur! at the Convent on the 
Lessei Dhammagiri a chaitya-tiall with a flooring of slabs, with a ch&itya "tod provided with all the 
necessaries, was^caused *o be made by*the female lay-member Bodhisiri (Skt. Bodhi&rl) for the 
sake of her own husband Budhimnaka, and .of his father, the householder Revata residing at 
Qovagama and of his mother Budhamnika and of his brothers Chaiiidamukhana,Eji.runibudhina 
(md) Hagharhna and of (his) sister Revatimnika and of (Aw) brother's sons Maha-CbamdamukKa 
(=Skt. Maha-Chandramukha) and Chula-Chamdamukha (=Skt. Kahudra-Chandramukha) and 
of (his) sister's sons Maha-Miila and Chula-Mula, and (for the sate) of her own grandfather Mula- 
vfiniya and of her grandmother BudhavaniMna and of her maternal uncle(s) (?), the treasurer 1 
Bhada (=Skt. Bhadra), Bodhisamma (=Skt. Bodhi&rman), Charfida (=Skt. Chandra) (and) 
Bodhika, and of her maternal grandmother .......... Bodhi and of her own father Budhivaniya 

and of her mother (?) ---- , of her brother Hula, of her sisters Budhamnika, Mukmnika* and 

Nig&bodhinika, of he^ daughter Viramnika, of her sons Naga^ona and Virarana and of her 
daughters-in-law Bhadasiri (^Skt. BhadrakI) and Misi (=8kt. Miki). And even thuswise a 
chaitya-'h&ll at the Kulaha-vtAara, a shrine for the Bodhi-tree at the Sihala-^'Aam one 1 call 
at the Great Dhammagiri, a ma^at7a-piUar at the Mahavihara, a hall for religious practice at 
the D^vagiri, a tank, verandah* and ma^w at Pnvasela (=8kt. PurvaSalla), a stone mawfava 
at the eastern gate of the Great ..Chaitya atKantakasela 3 (=Skt. Kantaka^aila), three 3 cells 
at Hirumuthuva, seven -7 cells at Papila, a stone ma%4ava at Puphagiir(=Skt. Pushpagiri), 
. ............ a stone maqdava at the ..,*.. .viham. And all this above described has been 

dedicated for the endless welfare and happiness of the assembly of saints and for .that of the 
whole world. This work was caused to be made by the three superintendents of works, the ih#m 
Chamdamukha, and the thera Dhammanamdi and the thera Naga, (It is), the work of the stone 
mason Vidhika. 

Detached Pillar inscription G. 


(1, 1) [Si]dharii namo bhagavato teloka-dhamma-dhura-vahasa mahSigj8[sa ViiS-] 
(1. 2} [pa]kkpati-Mahasena-parigaMt^sa Agihot-Igithoma-[V^jape-T (1. J)! y-lsamedba-y*. 

& KotMJcarika - Skt. 

* If .alatidd is the correct treading, it may perhaps be taken for anotlisr form of Pali alind* " a 
aterrace'v. ^ 

The vovel-mark of the fourth oMora has the appearance of an 0'strok, but thia I beJiave | 
tc an error not tmfreqwent in these insoriptionfi. 

The fiwt half of the inscription ha heea restofe4 nith the ^id oi the corresponding passage in other 


[%i(ji)sa Mramna-koti.go-satesaha[sa-halaH3ta-] (1. 4) sahasa-padai(yi)sa savathesu apatihata- 
samka[pasa]..(l. 5) [Vajsethiputasa Ikhakunam Siri-Chatamulasa Bun[ha]ya [mahfiruja-] 
(1.9) sa Madha[ri;|putasai Ikhakunam Sir-Virapurisadatasa bhayaya 8 ma-(l. 7}lmrajaa a 
Siri-Bfh}Hmja-]CltatamiiIasa* mStuya mahad[e]viya BLatidevaya (1. 8}... [i]mam 
viharo sava-jata-myuto* ehariyfa]naih Bahusutlyanam (1.9) patithuFpito].. .'."i'ra "pu naxh 
budh 3 na....[samvachharam]..[bitiyaifa] (1. 10) [gimha-pakharii] ............ sughfiyo ti 

Success ! Adoration to the Lord, the Leader of the Law of. the Three WorM^.-MahmlPvi 

,/u llS '"\ , dau f ter - in - lw of MaMr5 J a Vasethiputa EBri-OltatamQIa, of (the 
of) the Ikhakus etc., (see above, sub C 3) ; (who is) the wife of Maharaja MiujlLurl^uta Wiri- Vlni- 
unsad o the house of the Ikhakus ; (and who is) the mother of Maharaja Wid-Ehu ,ul. (f ). 

this monastery provided witha 

PiZZar inscription H, 

idharfl b sam| - saril - 0- 2) budhasa auhanjosa 

n Tt-i - uanosa puto.. 

(1. 3) Ikhakunam Sra-Ehuvala-tChatalmulasa sava 10r+*ll fl 4) 1 H 7 i - - 

jam Yiharo'cha (1 12) %*.,.* i /rn i 7 [ j da Wwmya nimiii thani- 



^^ Inthenthyoarof^ ^ 0/) 
day. Mal^S,:!^ ^^ tlle ^^ the l.t (for- 

^hlputa, 8W^.^ol( ^f^ 1 '^'-' "Maharaj. 

daughter of Mah&aja Matharfputa Siri.\2a D uri! J 1 ^% ?? ( f "^ C ' 3) ; ^ }i *) ^e 

<) the sister of Maharaja V aseLputa .Sri SSS S ^ *"*" /} ^ IIdulk " H ' ^ 

b -'* 

following W , oortaialy ,,. Ittthoot]lor 
( pK)per namo """* 


lor the benefit of the Masters of the Mahi[sa]saka sect, on behalf of the community of the Four 
Quarters, and for the sake of the welfare and happiness of all sentient beings. (It has been] 
carried out by the Master, the great preacher of the Law, the thera Dhariima[gho]sa. 

Sculpture inscription J. 1 


(1. 1) Sidham namo bhagavato aga-pogalasa Budhasa Chhadakapavatich[e]na Paduma- 
[va]-niya gharaniya sagaya saputakanaih Hagas[i]r[i]sa sagasa Nagatarasa cha sabhaja[sa] 
(1. 2) saputikana[ni] cha deyadhem[o] pato unisa cha mahachetiye patith[a]vito 


Success. Adoration to the Lord Buddha, the best of beings. 

A meritorious gift (consisting of) a slab and a coping stone, has been dedicated at the Great 
Chaitya by Chhadakapavaticha, Padumavani his house-wife, together with their sons Hagasiri 
and Nagatara with Jiis wife and together with their daughters. 

Fragmentary Sculpture inscription K. 

(1.1) saputak[a]na[m] cha Dhamasa Padumasa cha [Bha]dasa Hughasa saput- 

[i]k[a]na[m] cha had[a]ya Budh[a]ya Padumaya M[isa]ya Chula-Budh- 

[a]ya N[a]k[a]ya cha saj[a]m[a]tuk[a]na[m] san[a]tuk[a]na[m] sanat[i]fca[m] cha sanadi- 
m[i]ta-ba[m]dhavana[m] cha deyadham[o] pata niba sapadaka. 2 , . , . 


. . together with his 8 sons Dhama and Paduma, [Bhajda, Hugha and together with his 

daughters -hada, Budha, Paduma, Misa, Chula-Budha, and Naka, together with his 

sons-in-law, together with his grandsons and granddaughters and together wit!h his relatives, 
friends, and kinsmen, a meritorious gift [consisting of] a slab 


Extract from a letter dated Oslo, 2nd October, W28> from Prof, Sten Konow 3 Ph.D. 
" In the first place I should like to draw your attention perhaps unnecessarily to the 
suffix a^aka in Visakhayaka, Sagararhnaka, formed from ViSakha, Sagara, respectively. This 
same suffix is frequent in names from the Bombay Presidency ; c/. Lttders, Nos. 985, 993, 1000, 
1018, 1020, 1033 (Ka^heri), 1063, 1064, 1065 (Kutja), 1088, 1091, 1097 (Karli), 1109, 1111, 
(Bedsa), 1141 (Nasik), 1171 (Junnar). It evidently belongs to a dialect with a Dravidian, per- 
haps Ka-narese, substratum; The h for s also points to Kanarese. Moreover, some of the names 
seem to find their explanation m Kanarese, Thus kanda means * child ' in Kanarese, and 
chali 'cold,* Chalikirerhma^ka probably is Ckalikira^aka= 6 Moon,' It also strikes -me 
that Kanarese ka^ambu means 'envy.' I have not access 'to a Telugu- dictionary. But it 
seems to me that Kanarese is more likely. The other characteristics which can be gleaned from 
your quotations do not help us. They show that we have to do with a Standard Prakrit, re- 
lated to Pali, -which was, as you know, used over a large territory. The change of -p- to -0- is 

1 The transcript and translation of inaoriptions J and should be regarded as provisional. 

* Perhaps sapaduka-patfo. [Perhaps the reading ia 'patani be sapbdukani \ meaning two slaba with foot* 

prints, Ed.] 

His, hor, or their, as the oase may bo. 


[Vox.. XX. 

general m most Prakrits *nd cannot, be used for loealking the diakot. A flimilar 
atoonsadintheEharainBciaptions. 1 -would tierce <be inclined to .define the d of 

: Wea l e&ced.m 1 iha.nor m alked B emi.lit e rar 7 Piatdt ) u S d by 

, T T M ^^^ and P10babl7 Kanarese ' If J am *, we should a 
to mfer that the Ikkhakus had come to the Kistna country from the 

actois from 

i. .85).' 

* ' 

*., atiehekhfta 
"^^ or 
preserved in the 

L 8- A 4 

meaning - 


he ffi . 1 . . 

U - 10-11, and 

.fl-a-^^svJ^^JS "a^plC, * ' ' 


aect. See 



longevity, power and fame of (hi*) am family tod race." (Biuhler) hi the Hira- 
ha<Jagalli grant of the I>allava king SiTastaadavarman, L 9,^ JFmt, VoL I, 
p. 6; omha-veiayike [dka^^dy^al^m^mke "for conferring on ourselves 
^tory (m war) and for increasing- ^) mam^ length of life, and- power-. 
(Hultzsch) m the MayidavSlu plates of Sivaskandavarman, Ep.Ind.Vol VI p 87- 
amharh ayu-bala-wddhamyaih~katuw "making (it) a meana fot iwrwing oui 
length- of life and power." (Hultzsch) -in th^Britisk' Museum pfcte of Chanidivl, 
Ep. Ind., VoL VIII, p. 146. The Sanskrit equivalent of th* term- is found 
m the Chammak and Siwan* grants of Pravarasena II .(flu,* facription*, 
pp. 238 and *8) and in the Uruvapalli grant (Ind. Art., VoL V, p. 52). <?/. 
also chhatrapusa saputra-darasa ayu+Ma-vardhfc m the laadla plate- of Jfotika ( Ev 
Ind., Vol. IV, p. 56> and/, fi. J.^. for 1924, F , 402. 

(F> I. 3), perhaps Skt oZ^tfa m. "a terrace in front of the h<wifl**door," Pali 
alinda ^& terrace or verandah outside a house." Mah&vagga VI 36 * 
Vinayv PifaJcam (ed. OMenberg) VoL I, pp. 247 1; OhuUa^g^ ^ B 9 5 and 
14, l7w* P^., VoL II, pp. 153 and 16^, The- Omda is not necessarUy a 
terrace or Verandah outside , a building, as is proved by MaMvaihsa XXXV, 
3, Tatheva Lohap&sad* Thupatamuposathavhaye fa*3feAK-a^nw& Ureti. twhchhi 
alin&m eva cAa "He made. n iiuier pourtyaid and aat ian^r Teraodah in the 
Lohapaaada.*' C/ !>. K. Acharya, Dictionary of Hindu ArcMteXme, pp. 54 ff., 
and A. K. Coomafas^anay, Ju4.0^, VoL XLyjII, p. 552. 

Schariyu (C 1, 11. 10 and 11),, written mtsk shoirt initiaJ a in line S of inscription C 2 
s=Skt. acharya> Pali fichariya, " a teacher*" 
(C. 1, L 12; C 2, L !)>;, Ananda, ar perscmat name. 
a*w, i.e., IAifc*afcu=Skt k /foAvafa*^ Pali OfeMH. the legendary progtnitot -qi the Solar 

F,, L 

u,n epithet of- the Buddha. 

(H^ 1. 13)- C/. Skt. ud&i&y*, Pali ntSatma (absol. of tiW&<*{iJt " * point out ", 
"on behalf of, out account, of," 

unisa (J, L 3)=SktK - ushifiafa u , coping-stone." frequently met with, in, Amaravata 
inscriptions. T?he word appears to designate not only the c0ping r stone which 
forms the crowning member of the 'railing enclosing, / the. <upa fc but also- the 
frieze running 'along, the top of the 'scidptswed facing! of, such a Daoaument. 
Adkw*ry% ep. <?*., pp, 

(A 3, L ^ ^o., passim) and 

(B 2, L &). C/., Spencer Hardy,, Eastern Monaohisn^ p, 229. 
L% ^e., M^*<iSkt ^r^too^te from tt&JAa^SJrt. tfeditw... ".(?/ Pisohel, 
{rrammatik, 300. ' 

(F, L 3)^Bkt. upa^ivar^itce, 
wdsika <F, L 2)^Skt, upasika. 

(F, L 3) < c a "ceir^akt, ^^at^ra^ Cf.LZdt^li&l; Index 
uyaraha, uvavaraka, ovaraka. 
L % ,e^v passim), 
, k >, * jmmtai 
(A 3, 1. 6; rtc.,)*Skt J^gw^, Bdi i^Wfa, ^900% wmninH> wietohed, m 

* 2 


Eulu/taka (B 4, L 3), name of a clan. 

K.'Wa-vihara (F, 1. 3), name of a monastery, 

LTf1i[a]karika (F, I 2)=Skt. koshthagarika, "a treasurer, a superintendent of a royal 

store house/' Gf. kothagala in Sohgauia copper-plate inscription (LUders, Lut 9 

No. 937). 

\Ko]da[ba]lisiri (H, L 11), a personal name. 
JWSffHzya (H, L 12) "a pillar" (?). <7/. Pali kha^u, Ckilders, Pali Dictionary, sub 

Corrigenda, p. 622, under JM%u. 
Khariida, i.e., Khanda (ia personal names)=8kt. Skanda. 
KhamdacJiaUkircuma^aka (B 4, 1, 4), a personal name. Dr. Ston Konow suggests 

Kanarcse chalikira^aka=moon } from JKanarese cWi=col(L 
Khamdavisakhanaka (B 2, L 4)=Skt. Skanda-vMkha, a personal name, 
KJtamdasagara[m]naka (A 3, 1. 7, eto.,) and Khamdas&garamna^a (E, 1. l)Skt, $kanda*> 

sayara } a personal name, 
khambha, i.e., khanibha (passim), "a pillar," from Vedic skambh* G/. Pischel, O'ram- 

wafii, 306, Also in sda-Khambha (j^.). 
ffo^apati (F, 1. 2)=Skt. g?ihapati. 
gharani (J, 1. l)=Skt. gyihi%%. 

(F, 1 1 )8kt, ckira-ZaMa^a , an epithet of 
the Ikddlia. 

(F, L 3)=Skt, Chandmmukha, a personal name. 
Clamdamul'hana (F, 1. 2); c/, Skt. Chandramukha, a personal name. 
CMihtcnnula; see, Siri-Chdmtamula. 

Chamtisiri (A 3, 1. 7, do., passim) or CUmtisirtyim (B 5, L 5), a petBonal name, 
dmtudisa satiyha (H, 11. 1243)=:Skt! chaturditab MAghafc 

chStwda^, I 2), i.e., chatuwla, Skt. ctou^a, Pali <Aodiiflto, **a quadxtnguto build- 
ing built round an inner courtyard, a cloister or quadrangle. 1 ' Of. JJff^MAa- 
, *o(fiS (ed. Stenzler) p. 46. L 20; mMmjh mhatu^hmi Km* III 13- 

f - ^ 7 ^JS T ttd 5 ; XXXV ' 8 ^^ C ^ (No. 10 ImciiptH L. i 
By. Jni, Vol. VIII, p. 78. Acharya, op. %., p. 193. 

Chula-Chaihdamukha (F, 1. 2)=Skt. K s hudra-Chandrmum<x, a peraonal name 
Chuk-QMtisirivika, (B 4, 1, 5), a personal name. 
Chula-Budha (K)=Skt. Kshudra-Buddha, a personal name. 
Chuk-Mnla (F, L 2)=Skt. Kshudra-Mula, a personal name 

A L 1 -dF. U .. aad 3)==8kt . .^j^ .^ 

S6 eml ed with 

, r 

XXXI, 52. . , wf, Index 

(E, L 2; F 1. 2), i.e., <**#. " sixth ,Skt. dUlffa. 

, in th e pet80 nal name CMofton (0 4, 1 6) 


(A 2, L 2, 6^0==Skt.^te.r%a.^e^a-moAa.w>m^^a, epithet of 
the Buddha. Ruga, dosa, moha, "lust, hatred, and delusion " are the three Aggis, 
KmohanaH, or Akusala-mulas symbolised in the centre of the "Wheel of 
Existence " by three animals : a dove or cock, a snake, and a hog. 

tarisa (K, L l)~Skt, tarxha "thirst." 

tan^a~dimmkara**pahha (F, L l)a=8kt. prabha, a,n epitlxct of the Buddha. 

talaka (F, L 8)-^Kkt. ta4ayti> "a tank or cistern." 

Jt'tw (F, L 3), instr. tMi, (F, L 3) "three," 

tera (F, 1. 1) "thirteenth." 

telokadkarimadkum~vaka (G, 1. l)=Skt traildbja-dharma-dkum-vaha, an epithet of the 

thambha in sda-thambka (C 2, L 8)=Skt. stanibha, Pali thambka "a pillar, a column, 

a stole." 

tfAera, combined with personal names (F, 11. 34; H, L U)Skt. sthavira, Pali fAera, 

u a senior monk, an elder." 
theriya (F L 1), dorivml from i/^ra, adj "belonging to theras" subst. c * fraternity, cora- 


darisana (F, L I) --Skt, (farSana, Pali rfawana. C/. Piachel, (?rawmafo'&, 135, 
dasabala-makabaift (F, L IJ-^Hkb. datiabala-mahabala, an epithet of the Buadha. 
dinanm<1mk(t> (B 5, L 6); Skt, dinara, from Latin denarius, *'an Indian coin struck 
in imitation of and called after the Roman Denarius" and Skt. masha(ka)> 
u a curtain weight und monetary value," Manu VIII, 135, 298, .392. 
divam (K, L U)-.<Hkt. dimsa. Elsewhere (C 2, L 11) abbreviated as diva. 
Dlgha*Majhim*pa[tklcha~m&u and D$gha-Majhima~niMya~dham (C 1, 

il. I!- 12 and C 2, 11 940); corrected reading. C/. Vinaya-dhara and M ahavi- 
naj/n-dhara in Amnr&vatl inscriptions. Burgess, Amaravati Stupa, p. 37, No, VIII, 
and p. 102, No. 25. The word -dhara in these compounds must have the same 
moaning an Arabic bSfi$ " one who has the whole Qur'an by heart." 
duhuta (B, L 3)Skt. duhm " a daughter", gen., instr, sing., dMuya, (F, 1. 3; H, 1.9), 

Ha-maja^mfej (F, 1. l)*Skt. deva-manwTiya-sarw-sattvor 
ika, an epithet of the Buddha. 

ja*akato (A 2, L 1, eto., passim) -Skb dewraja-satkrita, an epithet of the Buddha* 
a (C I, L 11 u oM*a"; C 2, L 9 "<bw") "a preachef. 
Dhanaka, (B 2 L 4), a clan name. 
ZVb?fima (K, L l)Skt. DAarma, a personal name, 
DAa^ma^AoMj (H, L 14)Sfct. DMmagMa, a personal name. 
Dhavhmanavhdi (F, L 4), .e. ( Dhwnmanandi, a personal name. 

(B 1 L 3, to., passim)-Skt. dhatuara.pangrih%a absorbed by 

the best of elements (dBWte), i.^. by 
(K) in mnatuka, i,e> f $anattukaBkh sanaptr 
(H, I 8)Skt. napl|i, u a grayid-daughter ". 

i rim totHpiiUtai I ow, to the courtesy of M. L. da la T.U. 


INmCA. Vfot. XX, 

and navakvhma (C 1, L 12 ; C 2, L 11 ; *, I. 8)-Skt. nawtermoM, Pali 
ttawitomina, "a religious "building dedicated by some lay-member to the Saftgha", , 
The procedure by which a superintendent of works (namJcammifa*) is appointed 
by the chapter of BhiKVws in order to supervise the construction of a nova* 
Jcamma is described in Ghullamgga VI, 5=* Vinay* PifaJcam (ed. Oldenberg), VoL II* 
pp. 159 1 (8. B. E.> VoL XX, pp. 189 ff.). " If the buildings were for th 
Bhikkhus, then a Bhikkhu, if for the Bhikkhunls, then a Bhikkhunl, was appointed 
to superintend the works in order tp ensure the buildings being in, accordance 
with the rules of the Order as to size, form, and object of the various apart- 
ments". C/. also Sutta-vibhanga, J5MAHun?-w6ian^a I, l**Vinaya Pitahm, 
VoL IV, p. 211. The word mvalcamma frequently occurs in dedicatory in- 

namkajhmiJca (tf, L 3)' " a fihikBm or Bhifckhun! appointed 'by $xe Chapter as a super- 
intendent of the bunding operations of a wavdfcomma, (see preceding article) 
Cf. Ltiders, tiist, NOB, 154, 773, 987 and 1280. A synonymoim term la '' 
m-adhitthayaJca, Mahavam&a> XXX, 98* 
*^M-|S)=Skt. N&gfy a personal name. 
Naga (F, L 4r)=*Skt. Ndga, a personal name* 
Nagatara (J, L 1), a personal name. 
Nagamna (F, L 3), a personal name. 

(F, L S), a petaonal name* 

B> L 2) 4 *' assetnbfed X*) **#* Various countries**, 
(E, L 2); & word of uncertain meaning. 
nithapUa or rtfyhapita (0 1, L 12 j 2, L 11), Jfrali 'rt^gftApft^ past participle of 

11 to ^cotttple^^ MaMvdih8a 9 XXXI, 1, 2. Of. Pali ^fA^a' compleiied, w 
tfnitthite yeva, Mahavamsa, XXIX, 53; ^w^ anifthitarh kam-mam ntyhdpehi 
OJdE, 9 'XXXII, 2. 
%Mtitt-ra4^^^5^*e (A 3, L '9, eft?., #dfcsim)=sSkt; ni 

(, t 2} "fifth". 

{J, L 2 .and K) **n slab;" frequently in Am&tSVatlinsorijJtiom ; seeLtdirrf, 
" Mtew. Abo Sn impound ^p^-m^Wa (S, 1. fe), * with a ioot of (^o^ slabs 

(A 2, 11, 6-7, etc., passim) in 'compound j?atia?ia-6awiAa?ki a . Th^ word 
sponds with 1 Slit. 'fytdtJbhatfa,* ftili ' ;p^A^a=*counterpart, liteaess- Bitt v tikr 
word wanted here itf ^i&A5gf4 tali apfatibMga ** unedited, tuipai^UeM, *itotd!i- 

(A 3, L 9), *.., patitMpita, Skt. yftel^ftaijwtel "eye^fced, M u$*, d^dfoated * 
faduma (K)=8kt. Padma, * personal name. 
PadmnaoSni' (J, L 1), a personal name. 
SPocfawS (E)feSkt. P<ii6rt4, k personal name* 

-*m (F, 1. 3}=*Skt. pradJ&m-m&, 4i a fiatt io^r pMtJttetog Migkto 63taroiBe >f , 
from Pali padh&na "exertion, tofcrgetio efloit, tftd^ixig; v>> e^ 
C/. f^hana-mal^a^o inAmartviitt JntKseijptioni. 'Bux& 
Ifa. 49 j LtkdeiSj Xw, No. 1230 and eoireotiou, p. 179 f 
<E* 1. SHSkt. fHir^oA^ PlH poritgafa, ^.gc^ce, favour." 

gift* or'aiuHNi- fti^-ld.] p*Io4otdby 

No. 1.] 



parin(hnetuna{m] passim, absolt^ivum of pamo*He&"<^i3k{; r pari^amayati, Pali 

(rauB. of par9amat) <(t -to bmd $o, to \chang$ into, to turn to use for 
lody, to apportion, to destine*'* M^JWM B&pi$irj,tyilca apano matwam Haw- 
m ^nn&notuna (C 2, 1. , 7) a&d MaM&epi Chha$Usiri apano m&arovfa 
ih parinametuna (0 4, 1. 7), It is clear that pqriwmetuna is 
bore in the name sense als pur$to Icpdwnam, m the Jaggayy^peta ip.scfiptioi\s : 
mtitaraik NtyaiKitfiji* pwftto fatiunqm f M.aving ^ssoci^d [with tim] #& 
inothr NSgalini '* (BtlWer^ IB itk esjpres^B apawe> ubk^y^Jc^lam parim&etwtp 
(B a, 1. 5; C 1, L 8; 5, L 4) it is *lso ^od ^ith Ae object in tte apouaa- 
tivo. Blwewhete we find apano ubk^^-M^sa &j$Mtam-anw&P^WWfa <W 
imf^m&mkSnam in ^hioh tlM oopinectiw, , ^t tiw absolutism parinwm&un<* P 
act dwr. <7/ Buddhist Sfeb. 

(R t L 1), ie, f p0wafi^Skt- . , w 

E, L IHBkt, pwWWa^ e Budd^t faith , 

n hdhi-rukha^&da (F L , 
(A 2, I 5, 


(F, L 8) 
(K P 

), **., 

worrl rMra is frequently met with in <tap*MB iw*ipWBfc 

***&*** <?\H;*!^ tTfl 2) P^ (, I- 1). lan * me - 
Pukii/u, ridn/ti (A 2, L 6; U o, L f v/ o, i. ^; r-wy*^ \ i / 

Bappl^ (tf^to /Mim 9. M3),, 3w>p^mw (jMK IV 10 ^ <** ^^ 
249 BaM M*> "^ V 8 **- - 

rtw/m, p. 249), BappM 


Cy. M. Waller, Die 
(B 4, I 3; B 6, 1. 
(F, 1 8V 


; C 2, 1. ;/t 4, * .> 


jBwttnoia <F L 2), a peifonai name. 
JBwUU[A]^|M( t(K. 14 %>, 
JtaMi ff. I .gJ^Skt.. 

. - . 

(G, 1. 7), 



bkatuno, gen. sing. (F, 1- 2)=Skt. 

Bhada (F, 1. 2), i.e., J8JlWo=Skt. BAorfra, a personal namo. 

BJiadasiri (F, 1. 3), i.e., 3ftWawi=Skt. Madmxri, a pwrsonal name. 

taam/a (A 2, 1. 6, efc., passim) and Uay3 (B 2, 1. 4 ; B 4, 1. 5)-Skt. Milrfa Full 


bhdgineya (F, 1. 2)=Skt. IMgin&ja, "a sister's son"* 
ttfiww (F, 1. 3) gen. sing.=Skt. ZArSwJ ; Vhatwuim, gen. plur.Skt. 
bhdtu-puta (F, 1. 2)=Skt. bhratri-putra, "a brother's son", 
Majhima-nikaya, see Digha-Majhima-niMya. 
mamtava, tnamdara (F, 1. 3)=Skt. maiicla'pa. 
MaMkamdasiri (C 5, 1. 2), a personal name. C/1 Karhdasiri, 
mah^ani-vasabha-gamdha-hatM (A 2, 1. 2, eto, passim )Skfc. woAaflra 

Aartin, an epithet of the Buddha. For vwMgani cf. MdhSmmm XXIX, 30, 
Maha-ChaihdamuJ&a (F, 1. 2)=Skt. Maha-Chandramuklia, a personal name. 
Mshaehetiya and Mahachetlya (A 2, 1. 3, do., passim) Skt. MaMchaitya, "Great Clmitya," 

loo. sing, MaJiacMiyamU (G 4, 1. 2, ea? conjecture*), 
makaialavam (A 2, 1. 6, efc., passim), a title of uncertain meaning, evidently denoting 

u a high dignitary or a feudal lord". See above, p. 6. 
mahatalavari (A 3, 1. 7, etc., passim), u the wife of a maMt,alaiwa?\ 
maMdamtfanayaka (S 2, 1. 4)=Skt. mahadantfanayaka u a high, probably judicial, offi- 
cial". Cf. J. R. A. &, 1924, p. 402. 

maMdanapatini (A 3, 1. 7, etc., passim) =Skt. *w,ahudanapatni u a mistreas of munilicence " 
an epithet of Charhtisiri. C/. mahdddnapati in Taxila plate inscription, A'p., 
J^,.Vol IX, p. 56. 
maMdew (B 5, L 4; 2, 1. 6; G, 1. 7; H, 1. 11), a title borne by the consort of a 

ruling chief. 
mahadhammaMthiJca (H, L 14)=Skt. mahadharmaMthika a a great preacher of the Law." 

Cf. Burgess, Amaravati Stupa, p. 94, 
makSbhikkU'Sa^hgJia (E, 1, 1), i.e., maJiabhikkhu-sangha. 
makamatuJca (F, 1. 2). (7/. Pali makdmatd "a grandmother", 
Ma&a-MSa (F, L 2)=Skt. HaJia<*Mula t a personal name, 
mahawMra (B 5, L 5 ; F, L 3). 

makasendpati (A 3, L 7, e&., passim)=Skt. mahds^ndpati, lit, " Commandftr-in-Ghtef ** 
but here used as a title designating a feudal lord. According to the late Dr. 
Fleet it " denotes equal rank with Maharaja and Mahasamanta." (Gupta /n*0rip 
tions, p. 15, n.). See above, p. 6. 

mahdsendpatini (B 4, 1. 5), Skt. *mahdsendpatnl u the wife of a mahas&ndpati " 
Mahlsd]saJca (G, 1. 12), Skt. Mahitdsaka, Pali MahimsasaJca, name of a Buddhist sect, 
It was a subdivision of the Theravadins and appears to have flourished in the 
Indira country. Cf. M, WaUeser, Die SeUw des alien Buddhismm, pp. 7 and 

(A 2, L 5, etc., passim) and Mathariputa (E, L 1 ; F. L 1 ; H t L 8)* 
Skt. Mathanputra,) metronymic of Siri-Virapurisadata. 

(A o, L 7, e&., passim) " mother w ? ace. sing, mdtaram (G 2, L 7 ; C 4, L 7.) 
msir. and gen. sing. ^o%a (F, 1. 2; G, 1. 7). 
see pameha-mStu&a* 
Mm (f, L 3), i,e> t Jfwf^=Skt. K^r?, a personal name, 




Mulct (F, 1. 3}, a poroonal name. 
Mutamnika (F, 1. 3), a personal name. 
MMavuniya (F, 1. 2), a personal name. 

(h 5, 1. 3)=Skt. RudradharabhattariM, 

y T ging to thc ruiiiig house f 

2), a pronal name. 
Reimtimnika (F, I. 2), a personal name, 

(F, L 4)~8kt. tariftatt, Pali wfflaU, Hindi fc^ta, 
y. ** in Karle inscriptL/ 

m Sanehi inscription, ibidem, No. 490. Ininscr. F 1 the word 
OOCUFB m the compound *eh~va$haki^Skt. tailwardhaki, "a stone-mason" CY 
Pah i($kamm<!<ikaki "a brick-mason," Mahammsa XXIX, 5, 30 and A K 
(Jociinawwwamy, /. 4, 0. 5., Vol. XLVIII, p. 272, 

a) (A 3, L 15, d<^ passim) ^Buddhist Sanskrit vanfyata, vanipaka ct a beggar 
a menaiwit," Examples; Dew na ky&ha Kundld^ndhaka esha va 
patnya mka diwuy y^am$yam*avatiMtafa Divyavaddna, p. 4U, l. 18; 
tiityapff rfw-atif^ J)i^ p< 83, L 19; 6rfflma V a* S 

jirrwwtia^ v& anya^j w^i, t?an%aia, Mahavastu, Vol. I, p. 188, L u. 
(C 1, L II ; F i 2), ie, t;aAawa=Skt, wtoya " residing at".* 
ftfcftafo (0 I, 1, II; C 2, L 9, restored), "a preacher". 

i>4 (A 2 L 3, eto,, passim) and Vastfhiputa (G, L 5; H, 11, 7 and 9), i.e., 
KSw'^ipwttassSkfc V&ttwtyMputra, metronomic of Siri-Chamtamiila, Kamdasirii 
Khamdacltalikireifamapka (?) (B 4, L 4) and Siri-Ehuvala-Chatamula (H, L 9). ' 
iri (C 5, L 3)8kt* Vishu*r^ a personal name. C/. Vinhuka in Sanchi in- 

ncriptions, JSp, lnd. t Voi II, p 95, 
Vidhiba (F L 4), a peraonal name. 

Vir^pakkapati'MaMsena^mgMta (1 2, L 8, etc., passim) =Skt, Virupabhapati-MaMsena- 
parigrihito> m epithet of Siri*Chaintamiik In the Milindapaftha, pp. 6 fi., 
Mahlnfuia figurai as a demputta who becomes incarnate in the sage Nagasena. 
mh&m (F, h 2; G, 1. 8; H, L 11), a a monastery", 
(F 1, 3) a pemcmal name, 

(F, L 8), a personal name. 
ttt!&nt*(ia) (B 3, L 7, eto #f passim ; once vail&mika A 4, i 7)' in compound samana- 
IkrwAa^- * The word appears to be an adjective meaning, "belonging to 
Veiama." Buddha (/SlaJte, Vol. I, p. 228 ; Cambridge translation, Vol. I, p. 101) 
refers to the time of VelUma when he (Buddha) "stirred up all India by 
giving th seven things of price, and in [his] largesse poured them forth as though 
[he] had made into one mighty stream the five great rivers." He then preached 
th^ VoIfimaka-SuttA (VMmaka-Suttarii kathesi) which is also mentioned in Suman* 
j/aia-FiBtttfi, Vol. I, p* 284, L 11. It would seem, that Velama was a legend- 
ary personage renowned in Buddhist tradition for his munificence like Vessan- 
tara with whom his name is combined in Vibhangattha-htihd^ p, 414, L 6. 
Mr, Ifolmer Smith has drawn my attention to a passage in Anguttara-NiMya, 
Vol. IV, pp. 894-390 where the Buddha praises the liberality of a Brahmin 

with whom he identifies himself in a previous birth. 
vwkchMnm (A 2, L 7, etc,, passim) in compound *ama^a-&a^a^-Skt 
pant participle of vyavaefohhinatti, passive vyamckMidyatt, Pali 


vochhijjate "to be cut off". The word wanted here evidently JH avothhina, 

Pali abbochclMnna, albhochohUnna "not cut off, uninterrupted, continuous". 
samvachhara (E, 1. 2)=Skt. sdmiMsq,ra, "a year". Elsewhere (A 3, 1. <), rfr., 'passim) 

abbreviated as samva, or swh (E, 1. 2). 
sata (F, 1. 3), i.e., sato,=Skt. soyto, "seven". 
aatari-satam (B 5, 1. 6), i.e., sattari-satam " one hundred and seventy," Cf. Piaohd f,V 


saMiara in sapata-samthararh (F, 1. 2)=Skt. sowi^am, Pali *an^m ( mnthiim " layer 
stratum, couch, flooring". C/. Mdhawnisa XXX, 70. * 

- 7W ^ 
t (A 8 11 6-7, etc., passim) -=Skt.^ammna-^am-pra^ini, . n o pithotof ChSrh 
n. C/. above, under fa**!, w^a(te), ^ami(fe), patilMga, and 



(A 2 1 1 

2 1 5 ./, / ' and 10)> a Pwonal name. 

' ' | - 

, a personal name. ( ' 

-MM\E s; i 5) T)-1 k r' ^ s ?r- u ^ " a ^ 

^a (F, 1. i . H 1 ijtskTT' f "^ ^ epiftefc f ih 
^-to (C 1, 1 10 . n 2 "1 *" ~ pfln w * a ' 8 ra . acceptance". 

S-ed, acc ' -' kt ""*' Pali ^% 

by -' 
(B *, 1. 6; B 5, 1 4. C 2 1 ft n K , 

, , . 

*-",b ,? *;rf,' "* 6)=stt < ** -i ' " 8toM 

* M * 


Hagasiri (J I. 1), a personal name. Of. Liiders, List, No. 1284, 

Haghamna (F, 1. 2), from Skt. sangha (?), a personal name. 

Hamgha, i.e., JfJa%&a,==Skt. Sangha, in personal names. CJ. Ltiders, List, Nos. 1240, 

1262, 1271, 1272, 1274, 1281. 
Harkmasirinikd (C 2 3 11 5 and 7 ; 4, II. 5 and 7) or Hammasiri (0 4, 1. 5), a personal 


harisa (F, 1. l)=Skt. harsha. 

Hiramftaka, i.e., HiraMaka (B 4, 1. 4), a clan name. 
hiramtya-koti~go~sata$ahasa-hala^ (A 2, 1. 4, etc., passim); see aneJca- 

Hugha (K, 1. l)Skt. Sukha (?), a personal name, 

(E, L 2; F, 1. 1) Skt. hemanta-paksha. 

Geographical names. 

AvararMa (F, 1. 1), i.e., 4twaia, Skt. 4yar5na(M), Pali A?aranta(ka), a country of 
the Western coast of the Peninsula, corresponding to the Northern Konkan, 
the capital of which was SSyara, the ancient Surparaka. 1 Aparanta is men- 
tioned in Bock-Edict V of Asoka in connection with the appointment of Shanrna- 
mahamatas, in Nasik Cave III inscr. among the dominions of Gautamiputra 
gatakarni (Ep. Ind., Vol. VIII, p. 60) and in the Junagadh rock-mscnption of 
Budradamajx. It was converted by Yonaka-Dhammarakkhite, UJ*. VIII 7 
#(**** XII, 4 and 34. Of. also Mfcda. p. 331, Luders, tot. Nos. 965, 1013 
Arpa'lrariitika (?), 1123. Skt. Aparantaka. Cj. Baghu.1V, 53 

(B 5, 1. 3, i co^tora for <<C^M'>), U. Pa^ adj. from C7 ?? em bkt. 
W Pali t/eni, G, 'OC^ (Ptolemy, VII, 1, 63), modem U ]]ai n, 

G, Kavraxo^a ^o>ov (Ptolemy, VH, 1, 15) a town 


to be meant. 

CM*. (F, 1. 1), 


Chhada]capamt[i]cha (J, L 1), perhaps an adjective from Chhatokapaiwta. Cf* [Chhada]* 

kicha "art inhabitant of Chhadaka " (?) Liiders, r No. 1220 (Amarfcvatl), 
Tambapamrti-dipa, i.e., Tambapa<$<q,i*dlpa and adj. Tatiibapaihif&ka (F, 1, 1), Skt. T&m* 

raparria-dmpa, Gr, TocTtpopaviq (Ptolemy, VII, 4, 1), the Island of Oylnn. 
Tosali (F, 1. 1), a country and town on the coast of Kalifiga, mentioned in the two 
separate Kock- Edicts of Dhauli and two copper-plate inscriptions from the Cuttack 
district (Ep. Ind., Vok IX, p. 286 and' XV, p* 1); TcooraX>) pjTpOTroAlC 
erroneously located by Ptolemy (VII, 2, 23) in Trans-Gangetie India. Perhaps 
identical with AfcXTapoc (Ptolemy, VII, I, 77) and AoxiQCpTQVif (Periplus* 
47), Cf. above, p. 7. 

Damtta (F, 1. 1, reading uncertain), Skt. Dravitfa, Pali Dcmifa, the Tamil country and 
people on the coast of OoromandeL 

beragiri (F, 1. 3), a hill (?), site of a padhana-sala founded by Bodhuriri, 

Dhammagiri (Maka- and CMa* in P, 11 2 and 3), i.e., Dhammagin Skt, Dkarfmyiri, 
a hill The Chula-Dhammagiri was the site of a monastery, whero Bodhiairi 
founded the chetiya-ghara or apsidal shrine mentioned in intior. F. It appears, 
therefore, to be the ancient name of the hill now known as Nahar&Jlabftjta. 

Pamyagama (C 1, 1. 11 ; C 2, I 10), i.e. 9 Pa^^ama, Skt, Panorama (t), a village. 

Papild (P, 1. 3), a locality. 

[Pa]lwa (F, 1. 1, first syllable restored), a town in KaMga, identified with Duntapura 
(S. Uvi, J. A., Vol. CCVI, 1925, pp. 46 fl. ; Ind. Ant., Vol. LV pp. 04 ff ,). 
Ptolemy mentions IlaXovpa rcoXt? cv FaYY^TWO) xoXTt^ (I, 5, 16) and 
UaXoupaTtoXtCat the western-most mouth of the Ganges. 

Puphagiri ^ (F, L 3), i.e., Pupphagiri, Skt. Pushpagiri (" Flower Mountain 1 '), a hill (?)> 
site of a selama%<}ava or stone shrine founded by Bodhisiri 

Pwasek (F, L S), i.e., Pumuda, Skt. Purvataila (" Eastern Mountain n ) f a hill 

MaM-Dhammagiri (F, 1. 3), see Dharhmagiri. 

Yava[na] (F, 1, 1), Skt. Yanana, Pali Tona, designation originally of the Greek* (Ionian*), 

Jm?^? 7 , f ther f reign nation8 ' Converted by MahSrakkhita, Utpw. 
VIII, 9, Jf<OA;. XII, 5 and 3940, Cf. Saka*Yav<*ne in Milinda, pp. 327 and SSL 
(F, L 3), U, Vanga, Skt. and Pali Fa%a, modern Bengal 

p I 1) and 7*k*ofa (H, i 10), Skt. and Pali Fotkwflw, Gr. Bavoc{3cat 
(nolemy, VII, 1, 83), a country corresponding to North Kanara, The village 
of Banayasi is situated in latitude 14* 33', longitude 75 5' in the Shimoga 
dBtnct of the Mysore State, It lies close to the border of Mysore territory 
?TT . ^ 7 &m ^ Was converted to Buddhism by Raklddt*. 

V 23 l ' ^ ' 

-V, 23 (ed. BUhler), p. 34; tfattmfc* XII, 31, XXIX, 42, 

un J L 2), a town (?) to the east of which the apsidal temple founded by 
Bodhwn was situated. Cf. Ltiders, JUaf, No. 1285, 




Aftor the above paper had been completed, Mr. Longhurst sent me estampages of two more 
inscriptions discovered by him in the course of his excavations at Nagarjunikonda, " Both are 
found incised on sculptures. 

One of these inscriptions occurs on a s footprint slab.' It consists of one line of writing and 
comprises tweitty-three akshams, the concluding letter being written below the line owing to want 
of space. The aksharas measure from J to 1{ inches in height. The lettering is distinct, except some 
of the vowel-marks, It will be observed that the inscription is crossed by a series of nine vertical 
lines which possibly have some connection with the footprint carved on the slab. 

The inscription records the donation of a patipada. It would follow that this word, corre- 
sponding to Sanskrit pratipadd, ought to indicate the object on which the inscription is engraved. 
The technical term, however, by which a footprint slab is indicated in the Amaravati inscriptions, 
is padufahpafia (i.e., padukapat>tct), or patuJccf, patuka (i.e., padnka). 

The donor was Budhi (i.e., Buddhi), the sister of Moda, the Saka. If this interpretation is 
correct, the mention of a Saka or Scythian is a point of special interest. In this connection it 
should be noted that among the sculptures excavated by Mr. Longhurst at Nagarjunikonda there 
are two showing a warrior in Scythian dress. 

In the* word haJcinii/a corresponding to Sanskrit Hhaginyafa we note a disaspiration of the 
initial consonant ami a hardening of the media ga into ica. 


Sicl[dham] Sakasa Modasa bak[i]n[i]ya Budh[i]ya pat[i]pada deyadhama 

SUCCCBB ! A patipada, the pious gift of Budhi, the sister of Moda, the Scythian. 

The second inscription occurs on a carved stone slab. It consists of only three ahJiams 

which I read : 


meaning " Of Dhama". Whether this is the name of the donor or the mason, it is impossible to 



The inscription which forms the subject of this paper was excavated at Naianda, the well- 
known ancient site of Magadha, by Mr. J. A. Page in the official year 1925-26^ It was found 
buried in the debris of the southern verandah of the old, riMrMow called Monastery I-which 
has yielded not only a large number of bronze or copper images of various kmds and the very 
valuable copper-plate inscription of DSvapaladeva that has been published above,* but also the 
earliest remains so far discovered at Naianda. 

This interesting document is engraved on the top bed of a stone capital-bracket and covers 
a space of ITttoAeBby 11 inches, It consists of twenty-one lines of writing and, excepting 

< ' i ged A & Jfc, 1925*20, pp 181 & 158. 

yoL XVII, plate between pp. 320 and 821. 


for a crack at the middle, is fairly well-preserved. The execution is neat ami calligraphic, The 

lecord is a prahiti drawn in florid Sanskrit and, but for the initial symbol and the words ap 

elia coming between the sixth and the seventh stanzas, is entirely in vtno. The oharaotan, 

in which it is written, belong to the nortfcera class ol alphabets and present a very marked 

development in contrast with those of the contemporary and even somewhat later inscriptions* 

which have been found in Northern and Eastern India. They largely resemble the character* of the 

AphsaS stone inscription of Idityasena* and would, thereby, indicate that the development, we 

notice in them, must have taken place not later than the first half of the sixth century of the 

Christian era, i.e., the time to which this inscription belongs. Till now, the Gay& inscription of A J>- 

588-89 was considered to be the earliest inscription to illustrate such forms* But tho epigraph 

under publication is decidedly anterior to that record and, therefore, tmcomea the earlmot known 

inscription to represent that development. The alphabet to which these characters belong may 

well be called acute-angled (Btihler)* or SiddhamatfiM (Berfinl) 8 in preference to tint term * nail- 

headed' or ' Jcutila*. Devanagarl is an outgrowth of this Upi The prawn t wc<ml USIMH the 

bipartite form of ya throughout, as does the B5dhGayS inscription of MahinBman.* N&lamlS 

is not far ofi from Bodh-Gaya. This epigraph, therefore, will not countenance the supposition 

that the use of the bipartite ya in the Mahanaman inscription was " premature," The tripartite 

formofyais found even in the Udaypur inscription of Aparajita, 5 which belongs to the StHkvat 

year 718 (=A JX 661). It is to be met with not only in the inscriptional records named above, 

but also in the Horiuzi palm-leaf manuscripts of Japan which are believed to have oxi&ted in 

the second half of the 6th century (A.D,) To regard an inscription as late or early merely on 

the ground that it uses the bipartite or the tripartite form of ya would not, eotwitiquftntly, be 

quite accurate. The alphabet used in this inscription is, to a large extent, identical with the 

modern Devanagarl or NagaxL The chief points of difference which it presents aw* them* ; Th 

a-matra is generally indicated by a sort- of small wedge attached to the right of the top line* 

whereas in N&garl it is expressed by a full perpendicular stroke* In the caao of $9, however, a 

somewhat different mode is adopted by slightly bending tfoe right end and extending it up- 

wards beyond the top towards the right side. The u-mHtrS is slightly differtmt in shape, 

as, e.g., in 6Mn, 1. 2, The e-matra is marked in two different ways, sometimes in an elongated 

form of the Nagari symbol with a bend at about the middle, as in MtwW, L 1, aud 

sometimes by a short curve appended to the left of the top line of the aktfara to which it 

belongs, as in artWn, L 1, or in tafifya, 1. 21, Similarly, the ai-wSM is expnmed in two 

ways. In fcch*aisha, occurring in the penultimate line, it is practically similar to the NS$arf 

symbol, whereas in the majority of cases it is expressed by the hook-like mark attached to the left 

of the top line and the slanting g-wSra, as, e,jr., in WcWJ, I 21. The fl-wftrS w ahowu by the 

symbols of the 3 and the e-matrSs combined, see, for instance, m&Jcshdya and yd in I L The aw- 

matra is also different, e.g. } see gaura in L 6, ot jauddh$dan$r in L 9. 

As to the initial vowels, only the 3 and the i retain theit comparatively oarlwr forma. The 
former keeps the hook attached to its leg as in ftfettf , L 12, and the latter, the two small circles 
placed above the reversed crescent, as in ity* t L 20. 

In the case of consonants, the omission of the top line of the so, the ma and the ya symbols 
5s noteworthy. So, also, are the forms of the letters Mo K gha and /a; The symbol for dk* is also 
dissimilar and still preserves the old form, as oes the letter fa. The form of r in conjunction with 
a Mowing consonant is also antique and noteworthy ;,, see Admr^ fa L l or 
in L 2. , 

m> No 

yr^ fc . 
> I. In Vol. m, plrte XII A. ij^ Ind., VoL IV, pUt. facing p. 30. 


In respect of orthography, the points which call [or remark are (1) the u*o 
throughout of ? for 6, </; in vftlhi, 11. 15 and 17, or in Valaditya, 1, 19, ;ni<! (a) the use of tho 
$-like symbol for tho conjunct #, as in $nnwiwhu>rt*]anma\ 1. 17, 

The inscription contains two \vordn of special torziixil intiuvst. One is tihtu which occurs hi 
v, 14 and ficmns to be used in tho sense of aword personified o command. 1 Tho otlwr is 
Tikina wbich comes in the third stanxa and must be a foreign title, aw is bljuwu below. 

The inampi ion, as 1 havi? stated abovo, is a protasl! and its object is to rword that Malada, 
the son of the minister (mantrfn) of Ya&6varmmadeva, nmdi- certain &i ft*,' specified herein, 
to the temple which king Baladitya had em-ied at Nalanda i:i honour of thw "Sou of 
iSud<lhodaJia \ /.^,, the Hudllui. It eousistsof fifteen beautiful stunwis wriirm in three different 
metreis, namely, Hu.r<ltUlIavilai(litJun, VaantatiUka and Sn^adhara and ^ a Buddhist record, 
Commewins with an in vocation of the HutUIha, it extols tin- ^rreut ktn^>v;tnrimade\ r a us the 
Lokapala, i.e., piardisin of the world, who hud rlen like- tlte sin; after *lihpllin^ the darbit^ m 
the form of the enemies uud ufte,r ph'M'in^ his foot ou thu heads of ;tl! tin- ki.'ips th'w^h. uaiortu- 
nutely, it does not luemion ihe dynasty to which he lu'lontiiMj ,?( the country over wliieh 
he rvilml. It, tlien, intruduces the <lnor Mriliida ;;nd drsminw him as tliM wise, mag>iauijiv)us, 
l)enov<ilent' and vi i tori"Us sou of YuHuvanunuidrvu's rniuister, \vlnnn it culls tha Slarcjapati as well 
HH Udlclilpciti and /M'ttt'trt' Tikina, though it !OHS nor rive his n^nieor uuy other particulars about/ 
hiiih Mfdaxlu is nientiotuMl here as the brother of Nirrnrnal&(v 1 1), Mn(t>>an4anu) of BaBdhu- 
niatl und scion of a n<dle family, whono nani is not stated, (living a vivitl description of tin* 
inairnilieient t(niple which king Baladitya had built at Nalandu like a column of victory 
const nietwl aftci coin|iu*rin^ tho world (vv, J-lOj, tlto inscription spociiles the benefactiom 
which the, donor made, for that sanctuary, us wall a:*, for the Witehu* or Buddhist monks 
The uiftH conttistcd ol t/ftt^ t curds, a brilliant, lamp, purn \vator mi.ved with ft^urfold frugruni 
objects (chain* *i~*tukti\* and refresh itj^j lik<Hecta,r, and ,i pennuiwni; endovvmeut (akshaya-nai], 
the nature <d which lias not boon made <|nito clear. Wo uro further informed that MaLlda 
list ribute<l delicious food aiuUce.nted water In the. bhiMw* and, purchusiuji} a /a^a/ta and otht^ 
fchiiiKs fnm the % revcsred *SW<///w ; gavo thcia hack to tho numbs, herein called Sakgaiimja* 
( -the (Npiritml) sons of the Bu<1dha) o',opl.iii? a chlvarikii (monk's robe) and jwwfefo* up to 
and b(\yond Narddarikfu The afore-iueTitioned f^ifte Malutla brought himself out of his grut 
<lnvoti()ii f<r the liuddha when he wiw v awakened ' or euliyhten^d by the illustrious monk 
Pilr^^indrasona and jjavo them to tho nioiikH for thw welfare of hk parents as well as uf 
other relations, At the i-losw* of the inscription wo are loM that the klrtti should be respected 
not onlv because of th lear oi committuig the five sins (panchtlYMt<,tarya), which accrue 
front the infringement of such pious deeik but, also, because of the fear of tins sword 1 of km* 
Buluditya, the nuhduer of tho enemy, 

S<w AwtraMu, VnMaMjndnMM and also Mnniw WilHamn* RawMt-Engliih Dictionary 
Oi, dow thi w<ird wfr tn tin imago u! the Buddha (&<*) which might have boon sot up by Baladityn ia tho 
torn pie ho had built, ai Nalaudu (oo v* r", uf tho text) 



Tho four fragrant article wo: (3) Ttw*. '. /M^oo nami 9 (2) *, ^,, Cardamom, (S^otafa, t-t.. 
C^w and M) -V^ritoow, or 3/wa RoxburghiL CJ. Mfawgtotf* u>& Bhavcprakaw quoted m thu 

- -i 

The exact atgnifloMico oi this tern IB no* olm Possibly it meant eome placu for fcimselJ, if not his 


The last stanza tells us that the pratasti was composed by Sllachandra mid the celebrated 
Rar<Hfiik Svimidatta under the inviolable command of the Safujha. 

The inscription is not dated but supplies sufficient data to fix the time to which it belongs. 
It was written when Baladitya was ruling and when king Yas^varmmadeva wiw holding the reins' 
of sovereignty. That the Baladitya of this record must be identified with th hormmymous chief 
whom Hiuen Tsiang eulogises as the subduer of Mihirakula and the founder of th.i grand temple 
at Nalanda need not be dilated upon. The inscription itself mentions him us tho builder of a 
jaagnificient sanctuary at Nalanda. That it is silent about his subjugation of tho well-known 
Huna king of Sakala (the modern Sialkot in the PanjaK) is either due to'his having had very little 
to do m the matter, as has already been suggested by Vincent Smith, 1 or, iwhajm, to the fact 
that this inscription came into existence before that event.* Baladitya flourinhmi eir 530 after 
Ohmt. Accordingly, YaSovarmmadeva, his suzerain, must have ruled about the same a &> 
the question arises : Who was that suzerain ? He cannot be the homonymous rulr of Kunaui 
who was routed by Muktapida Lalitaditya of Kashmir and is better known to history as th. 

Srtd ^td" \ J TT* PlayWright ' beCaW h ^ a OU P I() f ' f < Wlt *** * 
period. The Chandel chief of tte same name is also out of the question, for h fwlon-m to a still 

who^V' 6 ; ^ r. r? 17 of * e Christian ' era - l kn - f ^ i TtiS 1 

who could be identified with the overlord mentioned in this inscription. But a noworf, 1 , f 
Ae name of YaSodharma b known to have flourished at the time when B, ,W Z r 1 ,d 

asir tr iiaSatst" -ST-** " <% 

buttheappellationas iven in ti A ^ mes . endm in df "** notunkaown, 

' under pubhcationloob more enable and more 

that we should call the sovee ffi ^^ ! Wmld 

down of the power of the Hflnas to lldl 7 , v 7 rM P on8lbl *^ th 
-r-by the name of n-JSLSTS^J^" ^ ^^ f tb C 
ftfa mscription induces him and BHldi^ ^' ^^ the 


, 4th edn., p. 386 - - 


the real name of the Hutuluor of the Hunaa in Northern India, as stated above, though, unfortu- 
nately, It ilooH not add anything to our knowledge of his ancestry or of his successors, whoever 
they won^ That it lowta an additional support to his claim for fame and that it proves for certain 
that what is Htatwt about him in the above-mentioned epigraphs is not a mere e oriental hyperbole * 
but rents on facts n<w<l not; be emphasized** 

Now COIWH the difficult problem of identifying the minister or mntrin who is spoken 
of aft MartjniMti, IhtWipnti and pratUa*Tikina in this inscription. But for the reticence 
of tho composers of the pw&Mti on the nationality and other particulars including the name of 
this peMona^, onu nwld liavo known Hometlimg definite about him. Margapati literally means the 
guardian >f road or roads, but from the similar expressions occurring in the chronicles of Kashmir 
one could take it to mean the guardian of the passes or the frontier, The Mdrgesas figure very 
prominently in the narratives of the later chronicles of the ' Happy Valley ' as Sir Aurel Stein' 3 
has already pointed out* They were ako known by other names like Margapas, Adhvapas, 
AdhtWMWt to., uml were generally referred to in the pltual and in connection with some particular 
routes or passes acroan the mountains, like the Ataliks of the Muharnmadan times. Besides, 
they were the feudal chief* who held hereditary charge of specific passes and were bound to furnish 
garriaonM for the frontier poHtw on these passes in return for the revenue of certain lands assigned 
to thorn. In the inscription under notice, on the other hand, only one such ' guardian' is men* 
tioned* He i upoknu of in the singular number and is called the ' Lord of the North * 
and m hunter of YttAflvarwmadSva, the protector of the world, Apparently, he \vaa 
the Ohief of aneh Uuardiang of Passes whose official status must have been higher than that of the 
Drfmt/^m or AlfirgMM of the Kashmir chronicles. What the wZfe&i or north of this record 
formotciH cannot bo stated definitely but, possibly, it may not be wrong to take it in the sense of 
the North- WVnt Frontier of India. Th is UdJchlptdi or the Lord of the North was, it would seem, 
the Chief of the Uumdians of Passes in that region, This personage is further described as 
franta-fikwi and the meaning of this epithet is to be determined, Thafc pratlta (prati^ + ita) is 
a SanHkrit word minifying * distinguished ? or 4 well-known ' requires no proof. Tikina is not 
a SanHkrit word aib all I)r. Htcn Konow very kindly tells me that it "is evidently Turki 
tif/in, tegin, tOyin. ft means " a prince of the blood ', and is especially used about the son or 
the brother of the Kbfin. Tho dhinew render it as fo-Mn. It was one of the words first 
recognised by Thomncm in the Orkhon Inscriptions" and we "find several instances of its use 
in (lhavam':, M^wwW mr to Iou~kiue (Tun*) Oocfantaun". The authors of the 
i, it would ppar, were not aware of other particulars about this 6 stranger ' and therefore 
d him by 1m rank or office only, The name of his son, the actual donor, was known and 
could nob haw bmn omitted. The inscription gives it as MalMa which is also not Saaskr*-- 
tboiiKh a forced Sanskritic derivation may not be impossible.' The other^detaiis gl ven about 
the donor arc that he was a acion of a stainless family and the delight, *. aon, of Bandhu- 
matl and brother of NirmmalS. Bandhumatl and Nirmmala might have been the proper 
nanum of the two ladi*n v bin mother and his sister, or their epithets only. The formei r 11 > known 
to IMI the nanui of neveral women. Both ate undoubtedly Sansknto and c.uld have .been 
applied to ladiM of foreign deBcant also. Malada was, as is evidenced by tins ~P^J 
devout BuddhiBt and might have been a proselyte, The offermgs of a lamp ^ scented 
water, *>.. which ha brought to Nllaad* out of his Mote of devote to the g^a *m 
tah5diina\ tttw^^ 

Tj, A A. ft, Vol. XIIV (1914-17), ,. W5. 


the R^m&gi^ Vol. I P- tli 'J^ ^ ^w xr SV and of 
, it rmfudu m. of lblda of the JfeHUfe* (Sabha XXXJ, fl and ot 

Ho, 1* r M>- 


Asian countries are seen bringing to the images of the Buddha at Kaskl in the Gdrakhpur district 
or at Bodh-Gaya and other sacred places even now. 

The remaining persons spoken of in the pradasti are the monk Fiirp-^indrasitttt and 
the two poets who composed it. Whether the former belonged to Nulanda itsolf or do somn othor 
locality is not definitely stated in the record but it does not look improbable that h** was ono of 
the great teachers. of Nalanda itself. Of the two authors of the composition ftvfimidatta is de- 
scribed as a prathita-kamtyiJca, i.e., a celebrated officer in charge of documents. No particulars 
are given about the joint author, namely, sSilaohandra* 

As to the identity of Naianda no remarks 1 are needed, for it is too wall- known to roquift 
any. A few points about this locality, however, seem to be worth metitxmwK HWN The fiflrt 
is its designation which is certainly Nalanda (ending in long vowol, *>., a) ami not Nfttenda 
(ending in short vowel, i.e. 9 a) as is sometimes erroneously supposed to bo. 1 Th* nam* 
ending in the long vowel not only occurs in this and other inscription but in literature atoo, 
both Buddhist as well as Jaina. lam not aware if the locality iignnw in Brohmttnical 
literature at all. It goes back to the time of MahSvIra, tlw Jina, and of 
Gautama Bftddh% i.e., at least five centuries before the birth of Christ Tin* Jiuna account^ 
would show that it was a very prosperous and sacred MkiriM or suburb of KSjatfriha whore 
Mahavira spent fourteen cMturmasyas. Early Buddhist literature* abo toHtifles to its 
pristine glory; But it looks curious that in neither of them it figure m a tmivflwify w 
centre of learning. Possibly it grew as such later, i.e., about the petio,cl when tlm groat pilgrim 
of China, namely, Hiuen Tsiang, came to study there. Tlio description of the 
B^^a^mdmalay^et^ as given in this interesting documTOt, ho 
that the pilgrim's description of its splendour must have been baaed on fact* 

w r . " ^ ^ ' * ^ 

Western WcM pp. 167, etc aoid The life of Nagarjum from Tibetan and Chinm ffoinw by M, Wdkw 

from Asw M^or t Hirth Anniversary Volume, Leipzig, pp. 15, *jc,). 

* (1) See SMra1crim*4a t 7th Lecture (Chapter bn Kalauda), of tbe Second Book 

(2) Sap,** of Bhadrabahu (ed. H. Jaoobi), Leipzig, m> p t 64, para. 123. 
RayagihaA nagara* Jfalaihdaiii oha babinyaifa 

- -* 

4. ""'** wj,*tuu.jJ4,eiioa) auiiiiijil 

Eau<Ja lokaprasiddha te Ba<Jagama kaMjai 
Solaprasadatiham achcfchai Jmabimbanamljal 
(4) Tlie Sam'mi^kharattfthamW. is more explicit if ^^^ 1 
BahHNaJazhdopado ^'^^ort. records i 

Vira chaudaraiia chanmSaa 
Hau(?a Batjagaroma nivasa 
Bhhhndehare ekaso pratima navilahi I Sodhani ga^iima. 



*-' r\ v . "i.," 1 , t 

HW1V ->\ '*U. 


>.2s:.'i .-)=< 


4* ^^ 



^'/ >! i> 



fa *a 


7\ ; :-'- : : ::--:;:> -.^-^fl^ 

*'i <, ;i ""-\viff i ,,,, ". . i ** . T * . ''*"' * **' 4 V"*' "Sifli 

^:y;^,, ; ,,,:;^;^^ 

fv'^v,^'%' ; ';\iIf^M... r-'^f:-- , ; . ^k'. v: ^4 


K^iA,,,;.Bi^'-;^v.: ^- 




*W i . ' 

' ''' 'Ij.' ,' * I 

..i'tAi^-.. . , ,/ .. _n..i.:i.> 

' J M: 

. ,;Ji3diF- 

; ; |f '|t AMANDA SA8TKJ. 


-.. . -. -, 


VH t<i tin* iiiV 
streamlet- or " 


H- Nurdtlivrikii own mu<,' in this record, at might have been an ancient 
' nl. NiUinla. 

TEXT, ' 


[i*] t 5 !: 



15 ?f 



is sft fawt^ ajjft 

I ^*t JI?rt?T 


19 ^r ^fiR^tfT Il[^t 8 lt*] 




Line 12 

f \\[^\\*] 

5 ?awtaMkki^Tlie lost oMan ol the flat ^5^a should 



(Verse L) Continual salutation to the Buddha who made up his mind to emancipate living 

beings from the strong tangles of the world and who felt exceedingly delighted after giving (his 

'own) body to the supplicant, whose foot-lotus is rubbed by the gods, including India, with the 

fishes (engraved) in, the diadems on their heads and who is conversant with the real nature of all 

the categories. 

(V, 2.) The illustrious, prosperous and highly glorious YaSdvarmmadeva has risen after 
placing his foot on the heads of all the Mngs and has completely removed the terrific darkness in 
the form of all of his foes by the diffusion of the rays of his sword. He is the celebrated protector 
of the world and the cause of the excitement of all the Padmini women of the earth. He shines 
above all in every quarter like'th resplendent Sun, who has risen after spreading his rays on the 
tops of all the mountains and has torn asunder by the diffusion of severe rays the foe in the 
form of terrible darkness, who is the well-known protector of the world and cause of the bloom- 
ing of all the lotuses of the earth. 

(V 3 )MiUUi was the illustrious and magnanimous son of the well-known Tiktoa (i.e., 
Itoriai who was Ins (Ya6Sviirmmad5va's) minister, the Guardian of the Frontier and I Buler of the 
North, He (Bttlid*), the unrivalled and quick subduer of the enemies, fulfiller of the dam of 
the suppliants on the earth, resolute, of stainless family and the son .(literally, gladdener) 
of BandHummtl, was honoured by his (YaSdvarmmadeva's) great tavour. 

(Vv <r-6.) BllMitym, the great king of irresistible valour, sfte havmg vanqmshed d 
tie feu'tad enjoyed the entire earth, erected, aslf with a see ^^J^J* 
pwU, a gr at and extraordinary tanpb (pftU.) of the illustnous son o f fl yo*te ( ^ SuMto, tb. ehumiig O* of O. nobl. Tid^dhu* 



Lrr^r^^si^. M -^^ - 

Btreams of diaputants. .,,, ftn d fame himself brought -with 


and learn- 

fied butter and cuidB, 



(V, 10.) He(Malada), whose deeds were wondrous, purchased (everything of) his own hore 
(at Nalanda) from the revered SafyJuA and gave it back (to the bhihhns) according to rit.i. barring 
the monk's robe. He also gavo away to the sons of the tfakya, i.e., Buddhist, monks, a common 
dwelling place (wherein) to spend timo happily, up to and beyond Narddariku, excepting a 
place for himself. 1 

(V. 11.) This stainless gift has boon made by him who is the brother of Nirmmulii 8 whoso 
face resembled the autumnal moon. His fame is spread over the world awl he has been 
awakened by the words of the monk PflrwSndrasona, who .shines by Ms rtxecllonro, 

(V. 12.) All this gift has been given with groat devotion for the sako of tlm welfare and 
longevity of the parents, brother, wife, sister, son and friends of him (*,',, Malfula) who is the 
sole repository of virtue. May it be approved so that the living oeiritfs might <TOHH the 
fearful ocean of the world and attain the great fruit of the Wishing Tree in the form of the 
sacred Enlightenment (Bddhi). 

(V. 13.) As long as the Moon rfiinoB and the Sun, the lamp of tho world, with IIIH lustrous- 
and extensive rays (shedst light), as long as this earth together with the <mcompanHing ocoiui widiires 
and the sky, which gives spaco, lasts, and as long as these great mountains, bearing tho yoko of the 
world, reinain, so long let thia kirtti> which is pure like the Moon, whiten the cirdo of (all) the 

(V. 14.) Whoever interferes with this gift, which has to last B long as tho world omlums, will, 
void of virtue as he is, have the diro fate of one who commits the live sins- (to him hum) that 
the Lord Jitia (the Buddha) is hero ovnr present within, occupying the adamantine noa*; and that 
the great king Baladitya has established this command (or the image o the Buddha)/ 1 

(Y. 15.) Thus, Silachandra and the well-known Eam&ka Svainidatia, having placed the 
order of the Sa&gha on thnir hend, without considering the weight (ofrwpmaibilit!/), compOBed 
at once this beautiful^ and sublime, though simple, pratiasti, although the* woallh of their 
knowledge is small, for, will not even the cripples 4 wish to get the fruits from tJb tree on the 
mountain by raising (their) hand ? 



The three inscriptions which form the subject of this article are incised on the north wall of 
the SaptafUxttvaxa temple at Lalgudi in the Trichinopoly district. For the sake of convenience, 
I call them A, B and 0. Inscription A is dated in the year opposite to the fourth (i&, the 
fifth year) of some king whose name is not ff iven in it. It registers a gift of money made by the 
Fallava king NandippSttaraiyar who fought the battle ol T^lpyn and gained victory 
in it, lor burning a perpetual lamp in the temple of MahMiva at Tlruttavattuyal in 
Waiyasru-nadti The amount was received by the members of the assembly of NaHimwi. 
galam who bound thmseh^^ oufcdaily (ow)i ^ of gheo< 

* See above, page 4L 

1 - * V- thinka 

mZ^^^ the >)"!, Ug the 

pe^apa ra imae of the Buddto 


hi.v rip! ion IJ Ls Uulecl on tiit, uay of iadaivam K'-HOT^-T. ~~" " ,. ~ - " -- '~* 

ot t ha usHo,,,!, v ,,| IlamporUBkay-irukkai in Idaiya^-nadu who bom^UL-,^ 1 ' to iu the tlurto,m,h y, w of' the roi"/of the C 1 


a T. peUU amp0 eumt k *"**pl. *** of ghee 

daily. Pho assembly of ManalkSl, a &rofco% a of ZaISTa-Mrram which was a sub- 
division -I Va^agrarai-Mala-aacJu, received the amount given and sold a pfoco of had in 
o to tlio tomplo. 

Before taking up tlio cjuoytiou of the date of these three inscriptions, I may point out ..- 
that they are written iu the mm hand and script and must consequently have been inscribed 
ltauoouBly. I may hero add tliat there is another inscription i* this voiy temple whi<* 
IB coeval ^vith these records and is, apparently, written by tie same hand though it refers itself 
to the Paiiavtt king Np'patiuigavaniun. It has already been published in the South- Indian 
J*wri V t,<M (TexU} 9 Volume IV.* Jntfcriptioru* of the throe kings mentioned in these records are 
*!BO found iu neveral otkor places. But they are all written in varying types of the Tamil 
script not resembling the one iu which the three inscriptions under notice are incised. As those 
kiugs^Iouriahed at different periods, the records belonging to their respective reigns could not 
kavo beou written in the same hand. Consequently, the Lalgudi inscriptions under examination, 
written ug they are in tlio same hand, must be treated as later copies of older records made probably 
lit the tinio when the templo whore they are found was renovated or repaired. Palaeographi- 
eally thoy can be assigned to the 10th century ol the Christian era. 

The inscription which 1 call C purports to belong to a ruler who is the latest among the kings 
mentioned iu thoso three inscriptions, The princess referred to in it figures as the queen of Paran* 
toka lJttfig5vB]ar a m another inscription of Eajakesarivarman which was found at TUlaisthanam 
in the district of Tairjore. She is also mentioned in a somewhat later record belonging to the 
third year of Parakcsarivamian. 3 The Tillaisthanam inscription of Bajakesarivarman, unlike 
the Lalgudi inscription, marks the pulli or wrSma as do the Takkolant and other inscriptions of 
RaJHkSsarivaritian, ie., Iditya I, and ought to be assigned to the same ruler. Two other epigraphs 
found at TiruppalSttupw' 1 refer to Tey.$ava& IJangovelar which is another name for Parantaka^ 
IJafigSvBlfir. Tlioy tell us that he was also called Map*van Pudiyar. One of them mentions 
Jh,Ss queen Kajja]ippir5JJiyar also. The name Pizdiyar given to Ilangovejar and the mention of 
his queen would show that he is identical with the Kotjumbajur chief Bhuti-Vikrarnakesari who is 
reported in the Muvarkovil inscription to have married Ka^pili and Varagui>a* e From a Tiiuch* 
ehondurai inscription we learn that he had a daughter named PMi-Adichchapidariyar who was 
the queen of ArikulakSsari, i.e., Arinjaya 6 the son of the Chola king Parantaka I. I have shown 

* Boo plato (VII) opposite to p, 173- 

* ttouAk* Indian ln$cri^tiom t Vol. Ill, No. 113. 

Ibid, No. 127, " , 

1 Nos, 3$8 and 273 of At)pfturlix A to the Annual Report on Sautlhlndian Epigraphy for J903*04 and p&ra* 90 
of psrfc II ol tiie Annml Report on South-Indian JSvigraphy for 1007-08* 

6 Annual Report on Sonth-Indian Epigraphy for 1907-08, para, 90 of Park II 

* Noa 316, 317 and 319 of Appendix A to tho Annual Etport on 8outklndian Epgnph/s to 1903-04. 


ebewhere 1 that ixlitya I must have ascended the throne in A.D. 871. Accordingly, the Lalgnd* 
Inscription, which also belongs to him, must be assigned to A.D. 883-4, for it is dated in the 
13th year of his reign. 

To settle the dates of the inscriptions A and B we have to consider the way in which tluiy are- 
dated. We find that they give some year opposite to the fourth. This mode of dating was 
adopted by the Pandya king Maranjadaiyan alias Varagujia-Maharaja, as is evidenced, by several 
inscriptions of iis reign which have already been brought to light. 2 Consequently, those two 
records also should be ascribed to the same ruler. 

We have now to establish the date of the accession-of Tellarjopnda-Nandippoftavarinan and 
of his contemporary Varagu^-Maharaja I, who was the grandfather of Varagin.iavarnian II 
and father of Srimara !4vallabha Parachakrakolahala, the conqueror of Ceylon. Tho AfahS* 
vamsa tells us that there was a Pandya invasion of Ceylon during the reign of Silamfyha Sena I 
(A.D. 846 to 866), in which the Pai^tjya king came off completely victorious and took pOBH<wmon 
of the capital and carried away a large amount of booty, though' he eventually moored thn Sin- 
ghalese kingdom to its rightful king. The only early Pandya king who is known from th &uoa- 
manr plates to have invaded and conquered Ceylon is Srimara. From the facto recorded in the 
MaMvamsa it can be gathered that his reign covered the last 3 years of tho ruio of Pappula and 
probably commenced in the year 840 and ended in 862 A.D. when his oldest BOH VaragurjaviArman 
II succeeded him. Srimara's predecessor, namely, Varaguna-Maharaja 1, must havo roignod 
prior to 840 A.D. His latest regnal year so far known from inscriptions is the Rovontwmth and 
we can reasonably state that his rule over the Pantjya country may have oxtondmi from 823 to 
840 A.D. though it is not impossible that it might have commenced a few years oarliar, Tho date 
of Varagu^a I can approximately be ascertained from the chronology of the Pallava kirum from 
Nandivarman Pallavamalla to Aparajita. The Yelurpajaiyam plates givo m tho gormalogy of 
the latter Pallavas for three generations commencing from Nandivarman II JPallttvamalto 
They *tate that Pallavamalla's son was Dantivarman and that the latter's son wm Nandivarman 
III. Thu ^information is supplemented by the Bahur plates which tell us that Dantivarman'* 
son was Nandxvarman III, who had for his que'en the Rashtmkuta princess &nkha, m A that 

v ' - e a n se P ates ^^ ma<Ie of 

Eampavarman and the name Kampavarman was not borne by any one of tho above mentioned 
fangs If Kampavannan was a lineal descendant of Nandivarman Pallavamdla, we mlAt ton- 
^tively assume that he was another, and, perhaps, the younger aon of Nan livaZn I I 
^e name Nand^ampe^vara given to the temple at gojapuram may have been caSed 
after Kampavarman, the son of Nandivarman^ it may be pointed out Jo that tS 

-W* that he might have 
^ ^ i 


or mth both, 1 Therefore, Jt is needless to take his reign into consideration to determine the 
period when the later .Pallavas ruled. From the Imbur inscription dated in the 26th year 
of the reiga of NppatuAga, we learn that the Gafiga king Ppthvipati I was a subordinate of that 
Palkra km." And since it is recorded, in the Udayendiiam plates that this very Ganga king 
was an ally of the Pallava king AparSjita and fought under his standard and secured victory for 
him in the lattle of Srlpurambiyam against Varaguija (II), 8 it might be said that Aparajita 4 ,was 
the immediate successor of Nppatuftga. That he was the last Pallava ruler of Ranch! is known 
from the Tiru villa ftg&cju plates which report that the Choja king Iditya I killed him and took 
possession oC hia kingdom. 5 This event, we have reasons to believe, must have taken place before 
AJX 891, for it is stated in an inscription at Tirumalpuram near Conjee veram that the village of 
ftrxiySri 3 * in Magaiyil-n$4u was granted as a dadana, and as a IraJimadeya in the 21st year of 
To^imatt-Arrur-tuRjioa-uiJaiyar i.e., Iditya I*. If we allow at least two years for his settle- 
ment in the nowly conquered country, it may be said that Iditya I killed Aparajita in about 
AJX 888* The latcwt elates furnished by the stone inscriptions for Nandivarman Pallavamalla, 
Dantivarman, Narolivarman, the victor of Tepp, i.e., Nandivarman III, Nppatuiiga and Ap- 
arajita aro 65, 152, 22, 26 and 18, respectively. With the help of these, supplemented to a certain 
extent by the light of contemporary history, we shall try to settle the chronology of the later 
Pallava Hoverwffna. Keeping AD 888 as the last year of Aparajita and deducting from it 18, 
which b the highest regnal year known for him, 7 we get A.D. 870 for his accession. This date 
must, therefore, be the year when his predecessor Nppatufiga ceased to rule. Since the latest 
regnal year HO far found for him fa 26, a wo get A JD. 844 for his accession. It may be noted here that 
the initial year of Nppatu&f(a's reign cannot be earlier than this date because in a record of his 
18th year the PSijuJyii king Varagu^a-MahSrSja (II) figures as donor 9 and we know for certain 
that that king'n acoension took place in AJX 802. xo We have to take A.D. 844 as the laa>t year of 
Nppatufigft'B father Nandivarman III, the victor of Teppu The latest regnal jear found for 
him in the imeriptkmn mentioning the victory of TeJJSju is 22. u But there is a possibility of his 
having reigned longer. l s If he had a reign of 22 years, his accession would have to be placed in A.D. 
822, Thin cannot be the caao for, we learn from the Western-Qanga srants that the Bfehtiakuta 
king Gfivinda HI and the Palkva king Nandivarman both crowned kings themselves 
fastened the fillet of royalty out the forehead of Sivam&ra II Saigotta. 18 The last year of GSvinda 

In a Tamil fattriptton of UttarfmalHIr of the time of KampftTMman dated in his 15th yeat whose text 
(Ho* S25) te puWMwd in the & L L (Texto), Vol VI, the donor is ^eyya-Aparajita, and he is caUed Pernmapftdlgftl* 

tip. JA Voi IV. p. 181 

* A /. / Vol II, p, 384* 

* It ii burnt from No, 8TO of Vol. VI of A I* I. (TaxU), that Ajparftjita 

* 8. L L t Veil III, p. 419, v. 40. Thin statement is confirmed by a stone inscription found at Tilkth&iiam 
which style* Adity* I M u El^Wiarivarmatt who extended his territory into Ton4ai-na4u w 

No. 89). 

Annual Rtport m Sjpigrapky for 1007, Fart II, paras* 29 and 80. 
7 No. 435 of th* tCdrs Bpigtaphioal CoUuotion for 1905. 
*,%, I ml, VollV f p. 181 

* No, 360 of tfcw Maclr Epigmphioa! ooltation lor 1021. 
* No, 705 of tho ma collection for 1905, 

No, ISO of tfao juwieooltootlan for 1907* 

, o j * , 

w In tip immmui epigraphs date<l simply to the reign of Nandivannaa without the dMrtingmshing Wf** 
* Piltewnilte f 0r fc XMI&rx^iniU * tkwe mwe be tome belong to Nandirarman H^ whifc to mm m^ W of 




[ VOL, XX, 

III being A.D. 8H l this event should have occurred before that dato, say about AJ). 812* 
Accordingly, we have to take back the year of accession of Nandivarman III by ten years, 
Looking at the fact that Nandivarman PallavamaUa and his son .Dantivarman had unuually long 
reigns, extending to 65 and 51 years, 2 it seems improbable that Nandivarman III, who mieeeecied 
Dantivarman, could have ruled long and, since the last year of his reign cannot lw taken earlier 
than A.D. 844, it will be safe to assume that his rule lasted from A.D, 812 to 8*14, Deluding 151 
from 812 and 65 from the balance we get the initial dates of Dantivarman and Nuwlivarman 
Pallavamalla. Their xoigns should, therefore, have extended from "A J), 701 to 812 and A.I). 
696 to 761, The chronology as worked out from these facts and others noted lator on is 
shown below : 

Pa$dya kings. 

Maya var man 


Yaraguna I 

Varaguna II 

Pallava kings. 

Kandivarman II 


Nandivarman III 



Gdvinda III 

AmSgfeavarsha I 

Western Gangaw. 

Sivamara II 

Ptithvtpati I 

jadtaiyan (i.e., Vaiajmna-MaliarEm T\ *T -u * , , * T ^ Cfl I*- 6 "* W loth) year of Mirag* 

'edited beio^d th^ftS 1^1^?^ JTi ^ ^ " ^ "^"^ 
bination (a) Dhanus, Tuesday and tii 1 1 tonner g lv ^s the astronoiaical com* 

year, ie,, 13th. Beicween A.D. 800 and 85 rtn i ^ e ^^wm Afivtol in tl i0 aame 

^S^^^^ rr 

. A _... . f>2of tl 

No, 3. ] 



taiaed botli sots of OataHs, tho days corresponding to the combinations (a) and (&), the initial and 
fifth years of the king :- 





Equivalents of (a) and (b). 

Initial year, 


(a) Tuesday, I0th Doc. . 

801 A,D, 

(ft) Monday, 30th Novr. . 


, Y. 




(6) Monday, 7th Novr. td.n. 71 


(a) Tutwlay, 12th Dec. id,n. 38 
(6) Monday, ^Oth Novr. f.d.n. 01 



(a) TuoHtlay, Bth Doc. f.cln. 56 ... 
(6) Monday* 16th Novr. .d*n. 70 



(ft) Tuwwlav. 22ud Novr. f.dn, 23 
(6) Muudu.y^ 94 



(a) Tuwsdny, 1st Doc 
(6) Monday, 9th Novr 

^^^^^g _ ^^^^^^^^^MMMHBBMM"' 
m I ""."' . . ITS, -** .. _* OA 


f\ xlt ATT V\ n tr^i 4.A 

5th year r 

806 A.D. 




to be rejected for the 
y, Nos. 6 and 7 have 
out to be A.D. 845 and 
only three that could 
years A.D. 811, 
would narrow 

^^^ mrr ^ M ilM^^^BIIIHBK**lll*i*l^^ 

> tint two givo tho fifth year equivalents A.D. 

"" "' nan cannot figure in them, 

to be abandoned because, according to them, 

855, both of which arc later than the lower limit fixed 

be adopted are Nos. 3, 4 and 6 which would give us, fc 

818 and 821. Even out of those, NOB. 4 and 5 may be 

the pOHsible longor range of reigns of b< 

bablo date for Varaguna's accession is A.D. 811. 

The internal evidence furnished ia t 

Vajvikudi grant shows that A.D. 770 mus 

reiga of Parantaka Nedunjadaiyan to whoso 

Varaguna I, only a single king intervened, *. 

was an eventless one. Therefore, the period of forty 

than sufficient to cover the rest of the reign of P^antaka 

Ana...alai mootd and the eventless rule of Rajasmiha. For 

811 as the date of accession of Varaguna I, we may assign A.u 

Of the places mentioned in these inscriptions, many can fou e nd e ^ e Majjakkgp is the 
tavattupii' must be Lalgudi itself because, the ms ^P } tot fer hom Laigudi, 

homonyruous village in the Trichmopolj -district and d ^^ a S ta ; attuiai ^ 6aid to have 
, have been the principal pbce ^^^^J,^^^^. Tel}^, where 

Museum Pktes and 

After Parantaka and before 
as at pregent ^^ 

. 770 to A.D. 811 is more 

from the time of the 
.^ AJ) _ 

t0scriptioil Aand A.D. 824 
81b ns P 

^- -- 

., Vc,L XXU, pp. 57 . 

Tho M is also . village, called TiruUav.Uur^ka^ 
A village of Oil name is la U4iy^palaiyn tohd, but 

tho one refcued to m 



1 Svasti &n []|*] 

ttavatturai-Mahadevark ku 1 Teljej^eyiriduvera Nandipp6tta|rjai- 

2 yar kuclutta paJan-kaSu 60-du [f|*] ivv-ayupadu kafium i-Sfia^u NaUtmaAgalattu 

sabhaiy5m ivv-apipadu kauft(m) Tkuttavattup,i-Mahadvar* 

3 idtai ko^(Ju naraya-naliyal n&adi naji ney oru nonda-vijakku kndir-Mitta- 

val irav[um] pagalum eriya*kko^u^e|jju ajapp5m%5] 

4 m[||*] Nallimangalattu sabhaiyom Tkuttavattupi-Mah5(ha)d,5varkku aJavOmSyil 

muttil mutt^irattiyum miilappatta pap.-mahevara[r] 

5 sabhaiy-agavum tanitt-agavum nilaikkajam-ujlitta tl$ v$(4u kSvinuklra pukka 

^(ff| 2 iru-nujju-ppadi^E-api ka^am da^am-i^a [v]o- 

6 ttinom Nallima&galattu sabhaiyom [||*] idu pati-mSii5$va ( rar 

I(i)raksliai ||. 


Hail ! Prosperity ! In the year opposite to 4, Nandippdttaraiyar, who 
the battle of TeHru and gained victory (in it), gave 60 old Wit to (fa temple of} 
MaMdeva at Tiruttavattuyai in I^aiylrpi-naijlu, Having received from the temple 
of the Mahadeva of Tiruttavattuyai these sixty Mu* we, , (the Member of} the assembly of 
Nallimangalam in this nflju, bound ourselves to take (to tfa tempk} and mwim out 
daily (one) noli of ghee by the measure called nftfy*njj, for burnkg one perpetual lamp 
as long as the sun and moon last. If we, (the members of ) the assembly of NaUiinaigalam 
fail (in our uvdertaUry) and do not measure out (ft* 0A*) to the temple of the MahadSw 
of Tiruttavattuiai, all the MaheSvaras attached to the central shrine 4 shall levy on fw fa 
mrn^s of) the assembly, as a body ot individually, a fine of two hundred and sixteen JcSnm 
and this shall be pad to the royal officers* inclusive of the nttaikJcalm* whichever they desiro 
Thus we, (4a mmbers of) the assembly of Nallimaiigalam, had this (edict) metal Thk 
(chmty) shall be under the protection of all the Forty-Eight Thousand Mttttvarai, ' 




No. 3. j 


kaiu 120 [ *]urjrirupadu kasun(m) muda[l] ke[<Ja]in[ai]y poli[y-u]t;tinal ni&di 


5 a}app5m-ayin5m ippadi ot[t]i i-kkasu kond5[m] Idaiyajru-nattu liamperunkayr. 

iruk[k]ai [sabhaiyo]- 

6 m [*] i-nney niSadi iru-naliyum muttil mutt-irattiyum mulap[pa]t;ta pan- 

maheSvarare sabhaiy-agavum tanitt-agavum ni . . . * 
? IJitta ta ve^du kovigukku pukka a $f f 1 3 aaafiru ka^am daijdam-ida otti- 
kku4uttom Tiruttavattujai-Mahadevarkku [||*] 


Hail ! Prosperity ! Iii the 9th year opposite to the 4th year of (the reign of) king 
Marafija4aiyas corresponding to the day of Sadaiyam, i.e., gatabhishaj (falling) on a 
Tday in the month of Dhanus, king Marafija^aiyaii alias Pan^yakulapati Vara- 
gu^a-MaharSya gave into the hands of Anaa-nattu-VeJIfl 120 old ka& for burning day 
and night till the sun and the moon last, two perpetual lamps in the temple of the MahSde-ra 
it Tiruttavatturai in Idaiy&jrpi-nSdu. As interest on these one hundred and twenty 
tA*-the capital remaining un-affected-we bound ourselves to measure out daily [two & of by <* *tyMttf measure]. Thus agreeing, we, (the meters of) the assembly of 
runkay-imkkaiin Idaiyajru-n^u, received Aese Mfe If (any) default occur, m 
ihese two noli of ghee daily, we agreed on behalf of the Mahadeva of ^ttavatturai 
in a body or individually, double the (qmntity at) default and a fine of five 
o/ 9 oU) to ^ royal (offters) inclusive of [n^toW as *e Mahesvaras 

attached to the central shrine desire. 


1 Svwti id DPI K 

* 30" 

"'" s- p -^^ ,- 



13 nnir vetti utp^da mayjum epperppatta vojjiyum iraiyuw i'i'h.l*iriiiii vdt- 

naiymu epperppattadum-ipulada-ga virjrii \> 

14 laiy-avajjafi-chji[y*]du ku<Juttora TiruttuvAfctu jtti-MfthrlPvurkkta Miu,w mihha i* 

yom i-nilattukku pugunda 

15 kuttukkal tlrttu-ku^uppomanSm tirttu-fkkucjdinagil ku|tfuki:aj fun'utui.M|>n/;uncU)- 

podu muypatta panm[a]- 

1 he^varare nilaikkalam-uljitta hm fv^uju] kujviyulkku . . . . . ' 
sabhaiyaiy-agavum tanitt-figavunt <,3ai t i- 

17 4am4da otti i-fiilam pattu^chdievum virtu vilttiy.Svtti.uun ,' ku'atiltmii 

Tiruttavattuxai-[Ma]l)5d5varicku Mai^- 

18 rkkal sabhaiyom [||*] idu pan-Mali?4v&iar nS]fj>^it-<H)?fiyimvArui nibhai H ' 1| I H 1 ; 


Hail ! Prosperity ! In the 13th year of (the m^ o/j king NaftgaiU 

Varagu^a-penunSftte, the illurtriwis uterfaio sinter of the ChA}a ktog (^J/ W i*7MMiIn. 
<W), gave 30 (/^tofu of) gold for burning a perpetual lamp dwly with (^.r // .,f' gliHi a$ 
tong as die sun and the moon last, In the temple of ttvavm-bhatttoakm at Tiruttavatturai. 
l^o^memSm^ ^) assembly of Ma^alkai >a Imhma^/a on thu w^lwi portion .{ KaUra- 
w ^ cl1 was a sub-division of Va<Lakarai*Ma)a*xiI4u rw^MviHl tluw, thirty 
:. The following are tho lands which they mild for th* 30 faik/i/w of g^Jd t< the 

enimaea^iga) at Tiruttavattu^ai for (6ww$) a naotHi lump : 

Four ma and (one) k&ni of our land, situated to th east 0{ the mound caill Wm$mmn^ 
-Aem and (one) M^i (o/ /av^rf) to the aorth o tho mf^fp^ in dirugnvar ? t u-o rf uf 

Tslaivjyajj* in all Imlf a f/i rii*prLsHi in 
.. , of $old, wjy (^A** mtMtwtt c>/) Miii^iykiilj HO Id 

other (faxea) inclusive of 

^ ^ 1 * 

o our n8 ' We lm to r-ifv th, 

officers i 




oi Baba igat BaBu^SS I d to Lll" K f th ^ tttonoft ' thtt *'^ l< 
daub. ^ to e wth the 22S ^2, * ^ <Jl6 tim00f N * wlh 8hu ^' 1 - 

-aUed enclose kaown as Rano^J ^.f^f d f^f h ? e We8tem Prtton of a large 
toad leading, to Fyzabad. ^ distailt from the ^ of AyddhyS on 

1 MOT also men ' for the 



The inscription consists of two lines. The first line appears to be complete, though it is difficult 
to say that the portion of the slab hidden under the sill of the doorframe does not contain on? 
or more lines. Of the second line, the left hand portion is completely effaced, though some 
slight traces that have survived make it certain that the whole of this portion was originally 
inscribed. The characters are Brahmi which show considerable resemblance with the inscriptions 
of the Northern Kshatrapas and some archaic votive inscriptions from Mathura. The charac- 
teristics of this type are discussed in Biihler's Indian Palaeography 1 and these are the equalization 
of all the upper verticals except in la, the constant use of the serif and of the angular forms of 
gha, ja, pa, pAa, ma, la, sha and ha. Another peculiarity of the Brahml script of this period is 
the slightly bent base line of the letter na* The inscription under discussion exhibits all these 
peculiarities in a marked degree and should be classed with those mentioned above. The docu- 
ment m written in correct Sanskrit and is thus one of the few early inscriptions recorded in that 
language. The only grammatical mistake noticed in it is the use of Dharmarajna in place of 

The document has already been dealt with by several scholars, the first of whom was the 
discoverer 3 Babu Jagannath Das Katnatara 2 himself. This article is writterf in Hindi and is 
accompanied by an inked impression of the inscription together with an improved hand-copy 
prepared by Mr. Ratnakara himself, Mahamahopadhyaya Pandit G-aurishankar Hirachand 
Ojha, of the Bajputana Museum, Ajmer, dealt with the document in the same volume of the Nagwii- 
PracMmyi Patrika^ as well as in his report of that Museum for the year ending 31st March 1924, 
pp. 1-2. Mr, K. P. Jayaswal has devoted three articles to the subject. 4 Other scholars, who 
have dealt with this inscription, are Mr. N. K, Bhattasali, 5 Dr. A. Bannerji^astrl* and Mr* 
N. GL Majumdar. 7 The inscription has, however, not yet been dealt with in any of the official 
publications of the Archaeological Department and my object in editing it in this journal is 
to bring together the various views expressed by scholars on this important inscription and to 
record my own impressions of the same. 

The inscription records the erection of a shrine or other memorial in honour of PhalgudSva, 
the father of the Dharmaraja ..... Dhana(deva, bhuti, efo.), Lord of Kosala, son 
of KauSikf, the sixth of the Snapati Pushyamitra, who had performed the Atoamidte twice. 

The inscription is important for more reasons than one. It is die first inscription on stone 
or metal yet discovered which mention* the name of Pushyamitra, the celebrated founder of 
the Sufiga dynasty, Hitherto he was only knomi from literary sources, AJT., the DwySoa&w 
(XXIX) Patafijali'0 MahSbhashya (111-2423), where reference is made to a sacrifice performed by 
Mm, some of the Furf*", Kalidasa's drama, the MalavikZgnmitra, etc. The passages referring to 
the Suftn dynasty in'the Vishnu and the Bhagavata PwrOfasm quoted in parallel columns m 
PargitJs The Pura^a Text of the Dynasties of tU Kali Age, pp. 30-33. From the riaet from 
the former we learn that the dynasty was founded by the General Pushyamitra after he jd dam 
the last Maurya king Bphadratha. His son was Agnimitra, who was n ^^^^^" 
The letter's son was Vasumitra and bis son Andhraka. He was succeeded by Pulindaka and 

Ind. Ant., Vol. XXXIU, 1904, Appendix, p. 40. 

, Vol. V pt. 1, pp. 99-104. 

, . B. * o. E. s, u* T PP 

XIII, pp. 247-49. [Hero Mr. Jayaawal has ^iven good faoainules of thia maonptaon.- 
* Mkdem Review, February 1925, p. 202. 
Ibid., January 1925, pp. 59.60.' 
4wwb of the Bhandarkar IiutSMt, Vol. VII, pts. I and II, pp. 160463. 



f VOL. XX. 

latter by Yome^ha. He was followed by Vajramitra. Ho was followed by JNUimbhiiga. The 
latter's son was Devabhumi. 

Kalidasa's drama mentions three of these kings, i.e., the founder, bin .son Ajniiiii<,ru and the 
latter's son Vasumitra and further informs us that instituted n Itrrjitsfiyn .sacrifice 
and appointed Vasumitra as the guardian of the sacrificial, which in accordance with religious 
custom was to wander at will for a year and that the home was seized by flic cavalry of the 
Yavanas, whom Vasumitra successfully defeated and brought the horse hick to hiw unnidfathor'a 
sacrifice. The Eajasuya sacrifice was performed by universal monarehs and the .sacrifice of t.h is name 
mentioned in the drama of Kalidasa may have been the one performed by I'unliynmitra on the 
occasion, of his coronation. The Ayodhya inscription, however, records the performance of two 
Atvamedha sacrifices by Pushyamitra. It is at present not known wlmt, nmvwiUtod the 
institution of the second sacrifice by him. It is to the credit of Push yam if rn that, he revived 
this sacrifice which had long been in abeyance owing to AAfika's commandmeutH prohibiting 
the immolation of animals even for sacrifices. Mr. JayaawaU think* that the AtvamMha 
sacrifice mentioned in an inscription discovered at Nagari alao referred to lt w !iyttmitra It is 
true that such an inscription was found by Dr. D. R. Bhandarkar when ho win'i-nptgwl in his 
excavations at Nagari.* It has, however, been fountf by Eai Bahadur rtrihnknr H Ojha 
to be only a fragment of the GhSsundl inscription and to supply the mwmnp portion of the first 
toe of that record. Thus restored, the epigraph shows that the son of (Sajaviuui an.i PuraiarJ 


the to, 

Stworkt ftB^Ti, T^r, ^7-itra, not Puahpamitr* .. found in , )m of the 
^nslmtworks^DrBuhler had already been led to this condumou' by the form 1'feuuiita whkh 
he found m certam Jama Prakrit gatMs, but epigraphical evidence wa 8 wantir 1K 

The ^interpretation of this short record is rendered difficult by the uncerluiniv ^ mt 

tonourof PhalX, a teache7o7d 
Ojna favoured the meaning skth in 
to interpret He 
of Pushyamitra. 

of it, his name woud ave 
ha. shown, is no real as 
the ftoa, and found on their 

" Gllurwhankllr Hiracband 
Mr. Jayanwd preferred 
> ^king Phalgudev* the father 
jcte,l the descent 


e lf 

, I & % *? **' aa 





is the case in the expression under discussion. Mr. N. Q. Majt^dTr has hunted up a parallel expres* 
sion ia verse 88 of the 16th Sarga of the Bagtomhta. The expression in question is paftcfamam 
Tahhahuya, which is interpreted "by three commentators as meaning grandson oi giandsou 
of Takshaka." Mr. Majumdar therefore sees no difficulty in interpreting Pushyam&rasya slash* 
thak as ' sixth in descent from Pushyamitra." In his third article* on this inscription, however, 
Mr, Jayaswal points out that the example from the Raghuvamfa referred to above is actually 
interpreted by Mallinatha as meaning the fifth son of Takshaka. ' The sixth of Pushyamitra % 
in the Ayodhya inscription should therefore mean tJtie sixth son of Pushyamitra. As, however, 
this interpretation would make Phalgudeva identical with Pushyamitra, he proposes to read 
Dharmarajnd in the 2nd line as Dharmarajfti, and to compound it with the following word pitu%. 
He thus construes the record as meaning that Dhanadeva, the sixth son of Pushyamitra, erected 
a house in honour of Phalgudeva, the father of his lawful queen. 

It will be seen from the above that the only parallel expression found by lie ingenuity of Mr. 
Majumdar is capable of two divergent interpretations. As has been pointed out by Dr. Banerji- 
Sastrl, the inscriptions so far known fail to throw light on the question and he is right in stating 
that the established custom in epigraphical records is either to name the generations in succession 
or not at all and that it is not usual to mention a distant stage by omitting the intervening ones* 
One such example I have indeed secured in verse 44 of l&e Vam&dvdi of the Chamba rajas, 2 
where we find the words " Meruvarman was the 10th from Jayastambha " after the nine inter- 
vening ancestors of M&cuvarman have been duly referred to in direct succession. Even here, 
however, the mbhaUi employed is the fifth, not the sixth or possessive case. An example of this 
kind with the sixth case ending occurs in the RaghuvamAa, Sarga 6, verse 29 : 

" Thou alone, fortunate lady, art fit to be their third." 

Sunandtl, the attendant of IndumatI, while narrating the achievements of the prince of the Angas 
observes that the goddesses Sri and SarasvatI, though naturally hostile to each other, together 
reside in him in peace, thus indicating the propriety of her union witih him. It will be observed 
that though the grammatical construction in this case is the same as in the doubtful expression 
being discussed, the sense of descent is out of the question. Whether more exact parallels both 
in form and sense will or will not be found in the vast field of Sanskrit literature, I am unable to 
say. It seems, however, exceedingly difficult to disregard clear palaeographic evidence and to 
group this record with the other known documents of the early Sunga period. I would, therefore, 
with Pandit Katnakara, supply a word like purushe^a after shashthena and translate " by the 
sixth descendant of Pushyamitra ". It will be* seen * from tie facsimile that only the 
first portion of the name of the chief who had this inscription engraved is preserved. Pre- 
vious writers have restored it as Dhanadeva and Mr. N. G* Majumdar identifies him with a chief 
of that name whose coins have been found round about Ayodhya. Be the name, however, what 
it may, the inscription has established beyond doubt the fact that Ayodhya formed part of the 
Sunga Empire as late as the date of the inscription, which, on palaeographic grounds must be 
assigned to about the 1st century A.D. 

Line L K&sal-adhip&na diw-afoamGdha-yajinafy senapatefy Pushyamitrasya 

Kau&ikl~ynttr$'tya Dhana .... 
Line 2. Dharmar&jM pitufy Phalgudivasya Icetanam karriam _ 

/. B. ^ fli. JR." A, Vol. XIIL pp 247 49, 

* Vogel* Ant>quit%e of Cbain&a State, p. 85 ;-* 


[The chief point of interest in the inscription is the use of the genitive case in the expression 
PtUkt/cu>Utr<uya sJiaiHthSna. According to Panini (WW tft^ $ T W( 4* I *& T <| W <^ and 
' V. ii. 48, 49 and 51), the suffix dto (with the 

augments moj and t&w&) is used in the sense of puraya, i.e., 

V ?TWK ^CT; (Katika on the Asfyadhyayi, V. ii. 48), ' that with which & number is com- 
pleted'. So W, means tl%!T if^: and ^w:,t|n|Tft'^I^I*, and so on. In other worde, 
this siiffis: does not signify any order of descent or kinship and tfgsf of the inscription, taken 
by itself, would simply mean: ' by the sixth.* The genitive case., howewr, Would show the 
Mtobandtia ot relationship which this person had with Pushyamitra, for that m ono <f the chief 
functions of this vS&dHi. To express ' order of descent ' tho ablative caB ahoulil be employed, 
as a reference to the comments on ^SWtTf^tf'C?? f^^^T^WCtf^TSfTf^^W (Astyadhy&yi, 

II. iuX 29) would show. We generally say <RrepBrR[ T$'., ^raH^WT^T:. Thin will be made 
clearer by the following quotation given in the &abdakalj>adruma under the w<mi napi\ti}a ; 

<dawijj,f WSTI: fatiK swrct i 

fafa: u " if IWH^TRTT^W^ 11 

That pa&shama and not ihastyhi is .generally used in such oases ia further ahown by Oio 
Puraqa (Am&a III, Adhyaya X) and the Qarufa-Pur&va (AdhySya LXV) UH qwttid in th 
Sabdakdlfpadruma under the word vivaha. 



Seriee) would !(> wpport th 
said statement for it .says' : 

^r wf 

o y, ^ it 

Therefore, if it was the order of descent which the author of the inscription hud in viw, he would 
have saxd f^f^^^a not ^fe w . Consequently, it becomes evident that if any word i. 
tohe TO pplied,itsh(mldheiWHran'dnot^^r. In consideration of the* points, MallinSth* 

( ^ hU " XVI ' ^ in tl " - " f ' * fifth 
ributed to this paseage by CMritmvardha,m or by Din*- 

^ "" r the form ^^^ ^' W y m but 

not : . Here, we should remember that th. Vayu^r^ K iv B 

in, r pn lto tin fr* M 





Tli is copper-plate was found by me during the excavation of the great temple at Pahar- 
pur in tho Budulgachi Thana of the Rajshahi District in Bengal on the 29th November, 1927, It 
was recovered from the debris that had accumulated on the north-east side of the circumam- 
bul&tory passage cut tho, second terrace. From the circumstances of the discovery it was apparent 
that it could not hiwi boon originally buried or deposited under the floor of the passage, but was 
probably brought down from a higher level along with the bricks and mud. It is to be regretted 
thai owing to th o inadvertence of the labourer a hole has been made in the upper right hand comer 
of it and some lotlc-ra in the three lines at the end of the first side and the first few lines of the 
second nichs have become obscure. The left hand margin has also been damaged at places, owing 
to which <'irnuntanee some of the letters written there have disappeared. The plate when dug 
out waw covered with a thick coating of rust and verdigris but has subsequently been cleaned by 
chemical troHt'.ment and proves to have been fairly well preserved. It is rectangular 1 in shape, 
measure 7$"x 4,J/' and, weighs 29 tdlas* 

Tho characters in. which the inscription under notice is written belong to the northern 
class o( alphabet of tho 8th century A..D, and closely resemble those of the grants 3 and 4 of the 
PSmrMUrpur* copper-plates of the time of Budhagupta. The formation of the medial a by the 
addition of a atroko at the right lower end of the letters ga, #a, dha, ha, ra and &a may be noted. 
The terminal m in written slightly below the top line as will be seen in -adlikaranam (1. 1), chatu- 
thtaymn (I H), Sam (I 20), and phalam (I 24). The rare letter $ha occurs in afihav&pa (1. 15)* 
Tho "forms of tho conjunct letters Jtofca (as in DaksUtya? 1. 1), hma (as in Brahma? 11. 3, 12 and 17) 
and 'HV/tMua (as in ap<m3c,hcMya 1. 20) are noteworthy. The numerical signs for 100, 50, 9, 7, 
4 uutl / are! to bo. found in 11. 19 to 21. The unusual form of 9 in 1. 20, seems to be the prototype 
of tho nmdmi Bengali sign for that digit. 

As rc^nlfl orthography, the doubling of k before ya in ^InariHya? (11. 4 and 11), and 
before r in "viklfayO* (11. 5 and 12), and Mrame^d (11. 5 and 17) requires notice. The con- 
sonants k, n> d, r ^iwl ;/ arc doubled after r, as in arTcka (I 20), *mwaTwy-& (1. 3), nirddista<? 
(L 1H), fanimn (II 4 and 12), ^armmata (1 17), Sryya (L 1), &Mryy5 (U. 4, 12 and 17), *8Mryya 
(II fl un<i 13) and in r/tomma and *awnmB*a in lines 16 and 19. The v symbol is used for 6 
in *mmu<luiwnhy~tiF (11. 4 and 11) and vvaMhir (1. 23). 

The language of the inscription is Sanskrit, With the exception of the fire imprecatoty 
venu* ut tho imd, tho whole record is in prose. The rules of joncZftiharebeen ver y often violated 
in respect, of it vtoarg* at the end of a word, as in' ayuteaW aryya M), 

(1. tt) t %mlr//;4 ^t^ 0- l ) - in U. 4 

and 12 in also \vrou^ grammatically. 

Tl." ,h,umnt uulr oxamination registors the purchase of a fallow state la^id by a 
private individual for charitable purposes. The Dhaniidalia,* the Damodaqmr,' the 

__ Jn tfae centra j p0 rt ion , It fc wobable tnat, as 

of the Dfuufolarpur platen there waa a eomi-oiroular projection at this 

'Above, Vol. XV, pp. 1W ff. 
[8i (,n. n on p. 01 bolow. Ed] 

* Abovo, Vol XVn pp. 345 f. 

Above* Vol. XV, pp, 1130* 

INDICA. [ Vol. XX, 

pur 1 and the Ghugrahati 2 copper-plates also record similar transactions, the difference being that 
in. the present case the jate at which one Jculyavapa of land waa sold waB 2 dlnaras wliereaa it was 
3 in the case of the Damddarpur grants and 4 in the case of the Faridpur ones. As NOB. 3 and 4 of 
the Damodarpur plates are almost co-eval with the present plate, the difference in the ralea men- 
tioned in the two cases must be due to local causes. Probably the quality of the laud available 
was inferior or there was an abundance of fallow land in the locality around Pahiirpur. It was, 
apparently, owing to such considerations that the 5 drdyavapas (=*'of a Iculyawipa approximately) 
were, as stated in No. 2 of the Damddarpur plates, granted in lieu of a deposit of 2 dlnSrus, when 
the rate was 3 dinaras to a kulyavapa*. 

The grant under notice records that a Br&hmajja and his wife deposited 3 dinSras or gold 
coins with the city council (adhisfyMn-adhikarawa) to secure 1 kutyavftpa and 4 drO^avfipas of 
land situated at 4 different villages all lying in the Dakshi^arhSaka^^i and Nagira|;ta-waw^!ala 
for the maintenance of worship with sandal, incense, flowers, lamps, etc f of the divine arfiats 
at the vihara of Yata-Gdhall which was presided over by iixe disciples and the disciploa of disciples 
of the Nigraniha preceptor ($rama%,-acharya) Guhanandin, belonging to the Pandm-Btupa 
section (nikaya) of Benares The donation of a Brahma^a couple for the worahip of Jinas,, as 
recorded here, is noteworthy for it bespeaks of the religious toleration of the people of the 

The Jaina vihara at Vata-Gohall mentioned in this inscription, it would appear, must have the original site of the present temple at PShaipur, The boundaries of the wte are partly 
situated within the limits of the village of Goalbhita to the north -west and the mound whore tke 
temple has been unearthed was pointed out to Dr. Buchanan Hamilton in 1807 as * OOaMtySr 
Pahar' (the eminence of G5albhit&). The identification erf Gollbhita with the ancient Vafa- 
Gohali easily suggests itself as the step GSfcgJi is substantially identical with GSS1, Kow ndics of 
the Jaina faith 4 have come to light during the excavations at PSJbiijpur, but munorouB Brnhntani* 
cal and Buddhist. bas-reliefs a^d terra-cotta plaques, dating from the late Gupta tirnofl, have been 
discovered. In the ninth and the succeeding* centuries of the Christian era, the PfthSppur toinple 
was. known as the great Buddhist viJwa of king Dharmapala, at SSmapura, the latter place. being 
recognised in the modern village of Ompur, a mile to the south of the raottnd. 

Begarding the prevalence of Jainism in Bengal, the Chinese traveller Emm Teian, who 
visited the country of Pu^<Jravardhana in the second quarter of the.seventh century, records that 6 
" there are some 100 Deva temples, where sectaries of different schools congregate. The naked 
Nirgranthas are the most numerous." This statement can now be corroborated by the evidence 
of the present document v^hich speaks of a vihara presided over by a succession* of Nigraiitha 
monks, at least 150 years previous to the Chinese pilgrim's visit to the locality. In connection with 
the name Guhanandin it is worthy of note that the name* of the Kgambara iehfima of the third 
and fourth centuries of the Christian era, such as YaS6nandin> Jayanandin, Kumflranandin, eto., 
as is shown hy the Iists 3 generally end in nandin. Pu^ravar^n*, is, mentioned as one of the 
SIT ?T , a n P r ; timing with Gupti^Gupta or Vttakh-Scharyya, the disciple of Blmlm* 
bahu II and Guhauafidin must have been one of them, 

* JmL in*, VoL XXXIX, p, 103 and J.A.S.B,, NJ9., Vol. VIL p, 475. 
2 Above, Yol XVIH, p. 74.. 

of a *>*,* mmt he 

O f , Weatefn World> Vo]> ^ 


The procedure followed in ancient Bengal* in respect of applications for the purchase and 
donation of land, as elaborated in the present case, is interesting. The intending donors approached 
the District Officer (AyuMaka*) and the City Council (Adki$hthan-adkikara<$a) headed hy the ven- 
erable Mayor (N(igara^reshthm) ami requested them for sale of land for charitable purposes at 
the prescribed rate. The Officer and the Council referred th A G ^se, in the first instance, to the com- 
mittee of record-keepers consisting of one chief record-keeper and at least five other record- 
keepers. 21 The latter after making necessary enquiries submitted their report with recommenda- 
tion in favour o the transaction. The authorities thereupon realised the necessary amount from 
the applicants and intimated the elders and other householders belonging to th$ villages concerned 
to measure out the land and make it over to the applicants for the purpose in view, 

The hind measure adopted in this gr$nt wag based on the measures o| graip, as is the case in 
the Damodarpur and other grants. The /kulyavap^ denoted as much land as could be sown with 
a kulya measure of grain. A kulya, according to various ancient authorities, was equivalent? 
to 8 d>r$wt8*s9% adh<ikasx=l28 prasthas, Other land measures found in the present record are 
drd$avapa and S^hampa, 

The dat of the grant as given in the inscription is Sam 199-Magha di 7 a ^ a PP% ren ^y 
refers to the Gupta -era, which was in use in Bengal when the charter was issued. As, such, it 
would fall in January 479, A.D. The mention of Paraw&Jiaffiralca in L 16 can only be taken to 
refer to the reigning sovereign whose name is not mentioned. The DamSdarpur plates show that 
the kingdom of Budhagupta included the bhufai of Puijujravardl^ana at this period and it is not 
improbable that the unspecified reigning sovereign at the time of the issue of the copper-plate was 

Regarding the identification of the,places mentioned in the plate, Pu^dravardhana hag 
been identified- by General Cuwuwgliam 3 with tie extensive ruins known as 'Mahasthan-garh/ 8 
miles north of of Bogta. Vata-GdkSH, as stated, above, may b&the modem Goalbhita. 
I am unable to identify the other localities, 

TEXT, 4 

1 Svasfci [I!*] Pu^4ta[varddha]nadIyuktakah 5 Iryya-nagara4re8hthi-pur5ga&-ch=adhiah- 



anubodhavanti [ J *] Vij 

of anoi^ Seagal' till it is proved by docnmeatazy evidence tbat 


* the Committee which 


4 gamma tad-ttbyyt Barn! cha yuHhrnakam-tli^ 


5 piaa.k^^^ 


6 yanaya Vata-GoMlyam*av*=^^^ 

-7 Btagavatam-Arliatam gwdha^Mpa-sum^^ 

a[ta*] eya Vata-GSkalito Yastu-dr5^vapani-ad 
8 mbudeva-prav^ya-Prislitliinia-pottaket 5 kslietram 


9 prav%a-Nitva-Gohalitah 

kulyavapam 6 =akshaya"mvya dfitum*i[ty*atra] yatat p wUwina- 

10 Pus&pala-DMJmrana^^ 

ahu pratliamaiiiL 7 * fnS]m*a7adhfiwma H 

11 y-avadliptain asty^asmad-adhishthan-adhikaraijS dvi-dlnarikkya-kulyuvripfina fefimt 

kal-5pabh6gy-aksl3,aya'-mYi-samii[daya-va]hy 9 -apratiIcara- 

12 [Miila*>kslietra-yaBtu-viklarayo*nuvrittes=tad>^^ 

Stad-bliaryya Earn! cha Palatetta-parivilafc*Vttto-(?ohSlMha 1 ^ ('O-ya 


13 . , t , b^pauoha-stupa-ku^ 

praSishy-adliislLthita-sad-viliarc Arahatam 12 g^ndha-[dhfip>ady*-upay8gay 

14 [tak-v*]ataka-nimittan*cha tatr*aiva Vafa-GShaiyaih vSBtii-drtlijiivIpain * jwUiya-* 

rddhain kshetraja^Jambudeva'-praveSya-PpBhtliima-pSttaki <lr{(quiV&i>a*chaiu(fht)ayaTh 

15 Gosliatapunjad^dro^avapa-cliatuslitayam 

1 Bead 6c%-a . 

2 Bead c fe c . 

3 [a XwysAvaJMktyflto of the Faridpur grants 2 and 8. Jnd* 4nfc, Vol. XXXIX, pp. 2(K) tiuti 2( 

* Tiais expression is further characterlsod as jw^^-^flya-fctcte-m'fclyi^a ia L 13 of tho tout. The word 
dtafti&tyite is familiar to the students of Buddhism in the sewift of * oao who known tlw five NikAyim f * In 
the present case, however, the word M&pa or si^a-^wfo occurring botwoen paftvha and nibti/ika and itii oonww- 
tion with a Jaina. preceptor would seem to show that Nik&ya ratiwc bo taken hows in th ciwo of i* branch (AiWt) 
of the Jaina Ackaryas. Paucha-stapa may, in that case, be a place name from which a purtH'uIar bn*nh of the 
Jftina loharyas may have been known* 

6 1 is redundant here, 

8 The engraver first wrote drQnav&pam* but finding his mistako later, appears to havd xn&do an attotnpt at 
correction. The erased letters MW are clearly visible twlow Jh%a. 

7 Some letters after this are lost. 

8 [The text of the DamSdarpur plates would suggest that eWKft^a w$ wa0 proomlwl by tbo 
record-keepers wbich were put in the genitive 


[Compare the reading in I 6 bove, -Ed.J 















16 dliyanWlunh kslietra-kulyavapam-prartthayate^tra na ka&chid^yirodiali gagas* 

tu yatparaiBa4>hattaraka'-pa(laiiaiiL=artth-6pachayo dharmma-ahadubhag-apyaya- 

17 uari * cha blmvati tad yaii-ln:iyatam=ity--ane^^ 

liiiiana-Natlia-Aarmiiaata etad-bharyya-Rajniya&^cha dmara-tra- 

18 yam aAikrityaitabbyam vijMpitala4cram-6payogay=6pari-nirddistta-grama-G6liaU- 

\'Crthu Uila-vfvfcaka-vastuna saha kshetraiii 

19 kulyavapa adhyarddhos'-ks'haya-mvi-dharminei^ dattah ku 1 dro 4 [ * ] 

Ta(byuhinabhili sva-lmrmma^-avirodhi-sthaae shatka-na<Jair 2 ~apa- 

90 vifirhchhyu 8 dat^vyo^ksliaya-nlvi-dharmmgna cha 6a^vad=acbandr-arkka-taraka- 

kalain anu-palayitavya iti [ I* ] Sam 100 50 9 
21 Miitfhft <li 7 [ I* ] Ukten-cka bhagavata Vyasena [ I* ] Sva-dattam para- 

(latlfuiL va y5 hareta vasundharam [ * ] 
J>a wi vishiluiyaih toimir 4 =bhfitv pitribhis-saha pachyatef ||*] Sliashti-varslia- 

aiiha.ruijii Bvargge vasati bhujnidah [ I* 3 
28 uknlulplu ch-gnumanta cha tany-eva narake vaset [||*] Rajabliir=walui- 

bhir 6 *datta diyat5 cha punah punah [ 1*] yasya yasya 
m yacla blLunii 6 tasya tasya tada phalam [||*] Purwa-dattam dvijatibhyo 

yatnrwlvtaksha Yndhishttira [I*] maMm=niahimatam 7 keshtha 
35 danlk*.ohhrSy3 nupalanaih [||*] Vindhy-atayislivariambunshu* sushka-kotara- 

vilBiiia[h *] krishn-ahmS 9 hi jlyante d8va-dayaih haranti yc [|| ] 

Abstract of Contents. 

and Rarry, his wife, approach the District Officer" and the 
by the Mayor (tfo^ at Puravardhana wz h the 

that i accordance with the procedure ptevaleat in the locality, they may , be allowed to 
that m aoiaauccwwu v j r ^^^ amon 4 

land ^^^^ among 

and M referredtoth8 


may therefore mean note of BO many cubits ^ r J ; ^^ mefming to ^t O r choo^-Ed.] 
[Dr. N. P. Chakravarti connects it with t^e Beng^ wora ^ ,^ ead ftAflwtis ,. 

' Bead *r*ir. fBut fc**- j" JS ^J^Smlo the piato is ^so oorrect.-Ed.] 

Ewi oa*. [The reading *<**** g" ^ e P , Eead ^atfi 

tod S*-lta. IThe plato correctly gives -*~-4M.] 

-note 8 on p. 61 dbom-Ed.J a ^ rf ^6^^ between tte 


The Council, in the first instance, consulted tho Board of Kooonl-Kwi^m fnv.sid.od 
by Divakaranandin, who pointed out that thero was no objodion to the f ranfw 
especially as, besides bringing some revenue to tho treasury, it would <>nf !(!> 1 1 IH Majesty 
to a sixth share of the religious merit accruing from tht) oudowmont. The (Smm-il, ilirnvforo, 
decided to accept the offer of the Brahmana couple and rooordd tho transfer of land. 

The village elders of the respective villages at which tho lands in quest tort woro 
situated, were then asked by the Council to mark out the boundaries* of tho liiuds) thu.i f, r nui*od 
and maintain them in perpetuity. Tie date was the 7th day of Muglui, in the |<iiipu] 
year 159. The usual imprecatory verses follow. 


is a village about 14 miles to the north-cast of Gada, tho hi'iiili|imrt .TH of 
the Gadag Taluk of the Dharwar District. Tho inscription, which w oditwl below, IK .-n^nm*! on a 
stone-tablet set up in front of the temple of KalamSsvara which is standing tkr. Th < inwribed 
portion of the .tone covers an area of 6' 2* by 1' 11* and is in a state of vwy good pnwrvation. 
The inscription is neatly written in tho Kanarese script of nbouUhe 1 1th century A.D. As 
regards paladography, the chief points requiring notice are: (i) the lii W uil</aud / nr- not 
clearly distinguished from thedental t ; compare for example c,hhan<hv-a{(tmkara (i U5), /Mimmyw/u 
(11. 17, 29), M^e (1. 33), pa$iyale (1. 34), etc. ; (ii) the -sign is indicatol in thnw difl.-rcnt, wayg, 
WK., (1) by a short hook at the bottom of the letter as in PvMgeft (1. 7), ? wAm ( / (II. 17, 29), 
vondu (1 36), etc., (2) by a mark with a downward bend by the m<i of tho" itt<r, IIH in 
^se h& (1. 13), mcmr^du (11. 18, 20), kuruva-gey (1. 28), ^., an <l (3) by a l<m K ri K ht HH!,. strnka 
shooting from the bottom of the letter as irx Puslya tuddha (1, 10), nnMana^lu (I. 40) ; (iii) 

k re P reseilted ^ a horlHmtal'rtiwk. t <h Inborn of 

the final m is uscd in 

e C6Png 6 trC ra P recato ^ -~ ^ Han-krit, which ,orno at 

^If m Kanarese P rose of tho nAval ,Hio.|. Th words 

a w of ^ 5) and cM ^ a (i - 24) ' 


v . that Tri*h vaua - 

village Um^achige situated m ^^^7^ ***"*' ^ '^ kin ' H I><ii,,, tho 

amga -Twelve to Maunara 6rWhara- 

u-32 mention the income of certain e B tat uudoc 


different headings, namely, the maintenance of the 
of *J* and JJM*. to *** of 

M^ to ,.*.... d jta, I d ,n, aS 

Carnage, ^ic -waAeej, BMube ^Karapu W ime and DlpSlige, with a remark that they 
be enjoyed by the t*ro<Jeya (li 33-36). IUurtl,er stetes (11. 3643) that fines on certo 



. s on cer 

it has specified, Hicomes derived from spoil., ^am^a (cWAwfla) of escheat property of 
person, dying intote to and taxes on musical instruments such as Me and maddak are to be utLd 

01 TTS ir ,* C ^ ? DSyilfa ^ e at Ummachige. Lines 4346 obtain the stipula- 
turn that the Mahajanas should protect the estates and maintain the gift even in adverse cir- 
cumstanccs. The record was written hy G5vinda-Bfcatta and engraved by CMv5ja (1 54). 
The inaeriptioa is dated the Saka year 934, the 8th day of the blight haH of the 
month Pushya, Paridhlvin sarhvatsara, Sunday and the Utta^ya^^sarbki&iti 
These details do not appear to be quite regular. Except for the week day, the date corresponds, 
according to Swamikannu Piliai's JEphemens, to Tuesday, 23rd December A,D. 

The iuttcription is important as it reveals the name of a new subordinate of Vikramaditya, 
*ft.., the MahasSmantadhipati KeSavayya who was administering the two Six-Hundreds at the 
time of the grant, A Record 5 secured from Hosfir in the Gadag Taluk dated in A.D. 1029 refers to 
the MaJiSsSmaitiadhipati KS&avatasa in the passage " MaJi^mantadUpM mahaprachavfadmfa* 
nayahm Mmt-KStevaraBara tadagra-tmujam [f] Svasti mmadhigata-pamlM-mahaMda m<M 
sandU-vigrah-adhipati mahSpr^^^da^nSyaJcam iri-Vaw%ara#ar*w<^mnururwm ...... 

naluttam^irc ...... " as the father of VSva^araaa who was then governing the two Six-Hundreds 

under Jayasithba, the younger brother and successor of Vifaamaditya V. It is this Vava$arasa 
who figures as a subordinate of Jayastoha II-in the Hottur inscription of Saka 959 (A.D 1037} 
and the Hulgflr Inicription of Saka 960 (A.D. 1038) 6 Kefevarasa appears to have succeeded 
Sdbhanarasa 7 itx the administration of the two districts, sometime after AJX 1004 when, 
according to a record 8 of YeMrur, the latter was stil the governor. We know from the NQgund 
inscription of Taila II dated in &*ka 904 that Kannapa-was appointed as the governor 
of BejwtarSQO and Purigefe-300 by Taila II and that he was succeeded by his toother. 

riya is made up of AWcwf (Ski Akshara) and iga, a taddMta termination indicating knowledge, accord- 
ing to Iho *SWra H?H|Tft!l rt || 167 || of the %arv&takaBhMbhfahawi of Kagavanna, p. 62 (Mysore Govern* 
t edition)* Tho word, therefore, aaeans * on "wfoo is well versed ia (the science of) words** 
8 Klkfyi oflootios am probably tho devotees of Siva in the form of MaB&ri who with an army of * seven crores * 
the iloaiona MaMa and his brother. Bee for the story Imp. Gfaz., Voi XVII, pp. 30 3L 

* Bftduho IB a Kanarese name for the new-moon day of VaiSakha, Karapumnime for the full-moon day of 

and DIp&lige for the new-moon day of A^vina. For Kanarese names of all the full-moon days and new 
moon day* of a year, see I)r Fleet's note in $p* Ind,, Vol. V, pp. 11 ff. 

* An inscription of Vikram&difcya V bearing the Saka date 0&p5] is noticed in Appendix B (No, 722) of the 
Madron Kpigraphicdl ffiaport for 1923. But the reading of the last figure ia do'ubtful (ciee ibid p. 101). A tecoid 
from Karatjihajli to the Mysore State ($$, Qarn< 9 Vol VII^ Bk. 287) belonging to the same king is dated clearly 
Saka 933, Paridhftvin, Pushya, Su, 13, Monday (*Mond^y,.the 29th December A.B. 1012) which may be re 
gat decl as hli latest date known o far. The present inseriplsioH is thus six days earlier than the latest epigraph 
,of VikramMItya V. 

6 No, 110 of the Bombay Karnatak collection fot 1926-27. 

* Sots above Vol XVI, pp. 75 & and pp. 832 $1 In the published text of the former record,"ths name appmra 
to have been wrongly read m Ohavanarasa, 

7 Tho rolationship between Sflbhanarasa and KSIavarasa is not disclosed, 

8 No. 62 of the Bombay Katoatak collection for 1926-27, 

* JSp. /wd, Toi IV \ pp, 206 ft 


Sebhanajrasa in the government of thoae provinces m about A.D. 982. Ti, in likdy thfct Taila IT 
after overthrowing the Ganga chief PanchaladSva shortly after A.D. 975, mv<mt<vl Kannapa ' with 
the governorship of the two districts aa stated in* the above record. Thus vr grt, after the ' 
downfall of the Gangas, a succession of rulers of the Bejvote and Purism provinces in the 
10th and llth centuries of the Christian era, namely Ktmnapa, S3bhanarasa, 
rasa and Vavaiiarasa. 

Fromthisinscriptionitcanbegathe^l that Ummachige wa 8 a groat education*! centre 

a wh wT llth cent r y A ' D> and maintainerl a pollc ^ with ft f '-^^ *^h! to 

it where anstruchon was nnparted in several sciences. It allots tt nharo of fifty *<*,, with 
house.s.te to the^, who could expound ^ S a and PralMkara anl t ^nW-flv, L^ , 

n-v, , 

studyang those subjects., while twenty-five ^ and MW hoHHato only .. !|v o hi 

" (mn I6tte ? Mmfld M *-* ^o >W teach an* comp< >H o works on m ,hen?a! 
tics, astronomy, prosody, poetics, etc., and was well versed in irmmniL i* V f? la ^ 

we e 

easem.tisworth eth ti n ''"'-'or. 








of fines in respect of certain crimes according to the caste of the offender. This is iu 
keeping with tUo kwa laid down in the Dhamat&stra. 1 

Of the places mentioned in the inscription, Roria is the modern Ron, the headquarters of the 
Ron Taluk in the Dliarwar District. Nareyaiiigal which was the chief town of Nareyamgal- 
12, a sub-division ia the Be)vola-300 province, is the modern Naregal situated at a distance 
of 10 mile from llcm. Ummachige is evidently identical with Kotavumachgi where the 
record was found* 


1 Svasti [ *] Rainasia-bhuvan-asraya-Sri-PrithvI-vallabha-inahara- 

2 jadhirajiL-panuuGvSvara-parainabhattarakaiii SatyaSraya-ku- 

3 la-lijakam llwlukyabliaragaih rimat-Tribhuvananialla-Vikra- 

4 mfw 1 i t y a< ! ova ra ra jya tnutturottar-abhivriddhige salutta- 

5 m-ire j||*J * Hiumulhiguta-pamcha-mahaSabda mahasaraantadhipati 

6 inaha-pruchaoda-dai.ujlanayakarh pati-mechche-ga^idara ^nmad-Danda-na- 

7 yakaiii KCfewayyanigul-liclvola-munujaiSi Puligere-munuyuvaA su- 

8 kha-Huiikutha-viii3dtt(lin-aJuttam-i]ldu [||*] Srfmat-Tribhuvaaamalla- 

9 ddvaram prrijrjtl-hisi Edijada Maunara Srldharabhattargge $aka-varsha 931- 

10 Paridlnlvi-wuiivatBarada Puteliya Buddha ashtanal idityavira vuttara- 

1 1 ya tjia nanikrantiyandu Nareyaingal*Panneradarolagap Ummachi- 

1 2 | #(>, ]ya ih ^rvvabliyaiiitara-siddhiyagi sarvvanamafyav-aggiaharam ma- 

13 (]i AfiBiiuaih bejgoqlo ghajige verasu pa<Jedu kudise ku(Je paded-ayu- 

14 ran-- a SrHlbambhafcj-ar tmpnalvar-mmahajanake bharaoam-geydu tayagam 

15 mahujunakkarfi prajogarii ma^ida vyavastheynifr 8 dharmma-brayad=upabiyada 

16 manyada bhuruiyu nive&anada prama^amu[ine]nt=ene SomeSvaradevargge ma- 

17 ttar aju Bhagiyabbe^varakke mattar-ppanneratju elkoti-tap5dhanara 

18 siitrakke matiar-ppaiinewKJiu Iychagavu^.4 alla degulakke inattar=aydu maneyo- 

19 ndu l<litya<lcvargge ma"ttaraydu maneyoadu Bettada-Bhagavatige 

20 mattaray*lu matiey^ndu Narayai^adevargge mattar=aydu maney=onda= 

21 nt-ayvftttu iMttar-kkeyyuman=ava]fa nivefenariigaliLvaiii Bendeyabhatarara 

22 tatiya brahmacfaaryyavulla naishthika-tapodianar-agiy-anubhavisuvar [ | *] 

23 Marolabbo-Bha^rigo mattarppannera<]iu maaey-oadu Nyasam Pr^bhakara^ 

M vakkli&Qisi gU9a&8anadin-uba bhatta-vptti anattar-ayrotta^ man^ondu 

a JfafMmrt% Otapfc VIII, Vv, 267-268 and f^towUifwmr* Chupfe II, Vv. 220-224. 
From iEk*imprfli?lon. 
1 The t^iign is iudteMnot and ressmbloB the consoEant y mark. 


25 mattai:=irppattaydu gaijitam joyisa-chchhanda-vajanikaraviivan-ribhava. . veyuvarti 


26 reyalurfi bajisalum balla, Sabda-sarhskaravulJata Nagadt~sigrgg< mt,yatlutiy*o- 

27 ndu poj[tal=aliaramuii)L varishakkondu kappadavuvan-ikkiy odini g 

28 nadin=alv=akkariga-vptti mattar-irppattaydu maney*ondu kumvu-gey 


29 radu maney=ondu ga}atige-gey-mattar'Sru aaney-omlu 


30 tu maney=ondu pajekaprgge mattar=ppannera4u mancy ondu 

31 n=a}vara satrakke mattar=nnuru mane yerad-antu ilhanmna-vrayakkaih 


32 mattar=miiimiu tTro4eyargge mtoyada keyniattarjnim]ru nmiKjg 

33 yyagala virppattaygay-nlla[da] nivtenaiii muni* [sfilvajta 2 sutJikuiu 

ku^de mu- 

M ttige padiyaje yajn a dal=ondu gadya^rfc .... 

36 orbar-orbanuh 

39 r- mS 9 iy.ftyuclha 




" & 

45 7ad=u P abiyad=aut =ail ituv.edeya 

46 ya myekna^al^n-euitu. duBhkalav^gdadarfx 
4T .idakke 

-Mflfl tapCdhanatuvan^aluAa^ 

1 Tbe word mflra ia written below the line, 


maijiyaUondu pagarfi BS[du]be -am n K mQru 

parwadojaih * 

87 * 1 ***** eurigo " giwe maru ***** ** 


42 ke,e 7 an.o4eda pat.ka^kkurix parikhayari. ocUtt.oIU mttr^ n 



49 kftviloyuvana][i<la paiiicha-malia"'patakan=akktim || Samanyo* 

50 yaiii <lharmma-H5tuxhr(s5tur)nyip5ijJkih kale kale palanlyo bhavadbhih I 

51 sarvvanc?tH!i*-l)!nlginah parttliivendran>=bliuy6 bhuyo yachate Rarnabhadrah || 

52 ftyardattrim para-clattam va y5 hareta vasumdharam [ | *] shashti var- 

shrt-\httHrrn.u viahtayam 1 j^ya- 

53 ie kritnih || Baliubhir-vvasudha bhukta rajabMsgagar-adibWh [ I *] yasya 

yanya yada blulini- 

54 | B ta]yrt tasya tada phalam || Govindabhatta[ni] bareda diavojam 



/TI in Hail ' While Ilic reign of the glorious Tribhuvanamalla Vikramadityadva, the 
e of iu! whole world, the lord of Fortune and Earth, the *<^^ 
i f arataW,f v /amte, the decoration of the race of Satytoaya, an ornament of the Chalukyas, 

was iiuTOWsiii^ in proaperity, 


the chief of great feudatories, the august General who had attain^e five 

fi v. 

, , v 




(LL 23-32) Twelve mattar and one house(-tfite) to the deity Mftroknbbe Bliaturl, fifty mMar 
and one house(-tfite) towards Ihatta-vritti to be enjoyed in return for performing flie duties of 
expounding NySsa and Prabhakara, twenty-five mattar to the pupila, twenty- 15 vo Mttffttr and oue 
housef-5^e) as akkariga-vntti to Nagadesiga who was able to compose anil expound (//<r /rv/U OH) 
mathematics, astronomy, prosody, poetics and ..... and who hud a knotting* of 
sounds (i.e., Vyakarana), to be utilised for his daily requirements in virtue of his wm'iivs of twch- 
ing his pupils, feeding them once a day and supplying (Mem) with a cloth every year ; twelve 
motfar and one house(-*i/e) for (^0 swppZy o/) tender cocoanuts 1 ; ix f/w//w smd one hnu,;< 4 ( ,v//r) 
for (fAe supply of) vessels 2 for dbJiishfika ; eight water of land and one, hoiis(-,svV* ) for barbers ; 
twelve mattar and one house(-jwte) for drummers ; (one) hundred mattar and t wo h< MUIP( Wi ,s) (o 
the feedmg-house of those that manage by gunatiasana.* Thus in all three hundred M,Mnf (ict PC, 
set apart) for charity and auxiliary expenses. 

(LI 33-36) Two hundred mattar as manya land and three housef-*//^) opjhf lands broju! and 
twenty-five hands long each to the Vrofieya. Moreover, the Tff.^ya^Ml //</ thw f tl<wh<tj) 
taxes permanently :~ a ku^e for the open space of an oil-proas ; tho reapt^r of a door-lmino for 
every set of wooden materials (for building purpom) & ; one gadi/aya for a vedic Hj^rilicc ; live 
payas for .......... , two pa$a$ for a marriage ; one pa^a on the occasion of 

one gady&y* severally ou the three p-wwi of 5M^e, K<WWHW>W and, ttipViyr 

(LI. 3643) The incomes accruing from the following fine*, w; 2i1 two ^OK/.V for a. 
another, twelve pa^5 for beating ; three ^yam? for drawing out the, dagger, I wive <jtubja { m 
for rtabbingH%) may change (^e <miw^ o/) fine considering the dLstinetion of c,mi* 'three 
?^a^, in case a bachelor commits adultery; three ? a%atw on the oeciwiou of purificattion 
ceremony-exoept when a mawi gets up a processional ma^lapa with weapon^* ; thai ohtaininl as 
spoils (after a raid), one-tenth (datavmtta) of the escheat property of pensona ilyini- in< OH( ute an<! 
the taxes on (musical instruments) Me and madto (fa dnm) ; all Uuw ahull w to (/Ar ^w* 
Deyirngere. He who neglects this shall incur the sin of breaking th tank. A houm-Kite 
' ..... fc including parikMya, etc., (w,f ^ apart). ThoHe that ketn H 

, the ? 5mu^^ and the chief men of the low caste (mu*t get) ono houfle(^) moh . 
(LI 4346) The fire hundred m a to (o/Z^)and the reapeeiivo fliteH (nttar/mit 



adverse fche times may be. 

ft. thc 

(LI. 48-33) Three imprecatory verses. 

* d 

of th! 8 word fa not clear 

,* p. 1263. 
prowdea oepta 0a to the fine stated above for drawing out 





This inscription in incised partly in front and partly on the roof of the HStlugumpM, an 
artificial cave, on Urn Houthwn fucc of the Udayagiri, alow range of hills situated about three 
miles 'from Bl'uivan<>Avar in the Tun district of Orissa. It was noticed for the firsi^time by 
Stirling in lH2f> and was published by Prinsep from an eye-copy prepared by Kittoe in 1837.' 
In 1877 OunninKham published a tracing in the first volume of the Corpus Inscri&ionum 
IwKcoruw. 4 In 1 880 the late Raja Rajondra Lala Mitra published another version of this in- 
scription About, thin time a east of this inscription was prepared and taken to the Indian Museum, 
Calcutta Thn tintt reliable vcmon of the record was issued from the able pen of the late Dr. 
Bhagvanlal Imlraji in I8B. I" 1895 and 1898 the late Dr. Buhler proposed certain come- 
tiont ' The fin* inlnxl impWHsion was taken by the late Dr. T. Bloch m 1906 and sent to Prof. 
Shorn from whom it, pas H ,d ou to the late Dr. J. E. Fleet, who published two short notes pro- 
lin" W rt*iu .mtinH in the reading of the 10th line.' In the same year Prof. Luders o 

ill k a - 'tho publication of the text, KPJ. went to the cave and prepared a revised 
to go with KPJ. and in 11, wo both exammed fj"^^^^^ Govern- 
cast i, now pr^rvod in tho Patna Museum. It is as J^^^k the Pataa 

tion of tho original allowed it to be. Two ^^^ J^d by KP J. at Patna. la 
Muaouu, With tho help of these matenals the study ^ c ^ d ^J ed the results O f his 


SchoUrH of Mr. H. D. Broil', typo 1* to difficult to replace.-Ed.]. 
AfMif Atww*, Vol. XV, pp. 313 f. 
J. A. ,S'. ., Vol. VI, pp. 1078.91, pi. LVDl. 
Pp. U7 f., SI8-101, l.'W ft'., pi. XVII. 

Vol. H, PP- 10 a ' . in ^ion 2. pp. 1M-W. 

J. R. A. ft., 1010, pp. 242 ft. ami 824. 
,-. Vol. X, App., pp. 160-61, No. 1348. 

"VoL m/pM. 

18 YoL IV pp. 304 ff. 




from the paper impressions preserved in fche Patna Museum. 1 In 1928 some further notes we 
published by him in the same journal.* We have again conjointly examined the cast and the 
impressions and effbcted a few important improvements in the reading and explanation as offered 
below. Amongst notable contributions 02 the problems connecoed -with the inscription, we refe 
to the articles by Dr. Sten Konow" and Dr. F. W. Thomas. 4 We have to thank our friend 
Prof. Anant Sadashiv Altekar for the help he has rendered to us in preparing the notes for thi 

The Hathiguinpl) a appears to have been a natural cavern which was later on converted into 
a temple or residence. The roof consists of a huge boulder, and the inscription begins on the 
southern face but is continued up to a place where the stone has become actually the ' roo f of th9 
cave. The last eight or nine lines occur on a sloping surface where it is difficult eitl-er to read 
or co P7 them. Both of us had to recline partly on our backs to read the portion from 'the rock 
Below the inscription the wnlls of the natural cavern have been chiselled straight and at places 
are as beautifully polished as those of the Barabar caves. Near the floor then are mu.drv rock 
cut pardons which do not appear to have been regular walls as they do not go up to the roof* 
In the dressed and polished portion of the side or the wall of the cave there are a nu mix* of kt r 
mscnptions (of about the 10th or the llth century A.D.) many of which contain proper nam 
winch are not of any ^historical interest." They prove, however, that the cave wa a *ed 
by pi grnns up to the 10th century and therefore it must have been considered Borne sort of a 
sacred shrine I seems reasonable to expect that the great Jaina kin Khuravoll Tn trtd 


nx indicted by 

* * 

position in 
in the 

are to bo S ,cn in - 
the ligature in 

and W,fo> (1 17 the , , 

and Lnil2(\ ^ , 
(] 4) TeT, & 

nty of , JS? the dental has been use! but ^ er bl i 
<]' tw- (1. 2) and ?a?a . (1. 17) only With t 
are dental. These two cases are the cerebral in - 


d- 4), 
"placed by 


( ] ' 15 ) 

r " Mld ifl to bo "' et 

*""" *" 

o. 7,] 


(L 17). The writing seems to have been done by three different hands, and it is possibly on this 
account that the forms of the characters sometimes differ. The first part of the inscription was 
written on a carefully dreased surface but after the 4th and 5th lines the surface was undressed ; 
and towards the end of all the lines after the 5th there are numerous chisel-marks which make 
the decipherment extremely difficult. 

The la.iguage of the inscription is Prakrit. The use of ra, the affix o at the end of the 
nominativoH of masculine stems ending in a, and the absence of palatal a show that it is not 
M.iira,rilil or an? extern dialect of it, Throughout the inscription the dental has practically replaced 
all other sibilants. The doubling of consonants, even when necessary, bas been omitted. 
The centralisation of dentals is also to be seen, as in -p^rfchavadam (L 8). There is Uo an 
to approach classical Sanskrit in certain cases, e.g., MahamegJiavahanena (I I) and mm- 
ti (I !)> <^' Throughout the record the liquifaction of consonants is absent. This would 
that the record was composed by a man from Western India who wrote in a literacy 
t. "It IH quite possible that the record was composed by a Jaina monk from Gujarat or 
the MahMHhtra who might have been brought into Kalinga by King Kharavela for the purpose 
^Httioucdmi 10. The language of the record is a very near approach to the canonical Pah, 
But UH in Jaina flauraHonl, da in this dialect becomes dha, of. padJiame (1. 3), 'raSha* (L *), vitadha 
n 5) ' tfaradhwiri- (1. 7), Madhumm (L 8), BharadJuxuasa- (1. 10), VtaripaOu*- (I. 11), but not 
taailcwes, c/:muift*a-(i.")- The eytraordinary form chavuthe (1. 5) is a graphic form o 
but Prakrit dtaA becomes oho in GfeytfK (L 16) which is a later Praknt f orm o 
. Ho abo Sanskrit MM. becomes tuny^k (L 18) instead of tunarn. Perhaps 
fw the intemiediate form but the change of ta into ya instead of a u e.ceptionaU 

backed Kuliaua form, as t Kahmg-a (1. 1). itiree ;d the curve ^s turned 

wit , a circuit botton,, 

into a right angle, o/. -o 

the length of tho_ lc|,hand 

two right angles ms ead of 

in Wto-, -rtH^o- (L 6) and the ate r, - 

tho Maurya, an in p*4m^ 0-8) and 

distingihod in the case o and 

(1. 4) ; (5) the transitional 


1. 8 , 

form in 

the later form with angles 

o (L 8), 

o**M ^ 

the angular form / 

the curve 

** ** '' 

^ case of & also m fi.d two forms : 

as t ^ (1. 9). Tbree different forms ca, be 
*^ ^ ^ ^.^ and paemnM . 
^ J ^^ (L ?)> 

v, r Q{ c ^ s in tepa . ro ^ 

be noted ^ the Kushana 
Soals in the case of X a we End the Maurya 
fl in JfM^ and M^^- 
general duct of the writing *boa tUt fch* 
n g th leng th of the vertices bad not begtm 

f. i* 


belongs to the same period as the earliest inscription from Mathurfi edited by Bilhlor 1 , and it 
cannot be earlier than the beginning of the 2nd century B.C. or later than (.hat of the 1st 
century B.C. For na, %a and other letters a reference is invited to the detailed pahwgraphical 
analysis by EDB, elsewhese. 8 

There are two symbols, one over the other at the beginning, and one at tho end of the 
record. At the beginning the first symbol looks like a crown. KIM. identificH it with the 
Vaddha-mangala. 3 The second is the Svastika. The last symbol w the Sacred Tree within a, 
square enclosure or railing. There is an elaborate system of spacing in thin record, the larger, 
corresponding to full stops. There is space before almost every proper name,. The smaller 
spaces indicate clauses of a sentence. 

It has been proved by repeated examinations of the rock that there is no date in u Maurya 
era in the 16th line of this inscription, as supposed by the late Bhovanlal Indrnji antl ourselves 
formerly. The date will therefore depend upon synchronisms. The first of them- HviirhroniHir.s 
is with Satakamni. It is now absolutely certain that tho family name of (he dvniistr founded 
bySimukaisSatavahanaandnotSatakarni. 4 Tho NSniJghaj, inwript.ioriH supply the Juhcl /%J 
Simulca-Satavahano for the statue of Simuka. There were ntoru kin (Jian "on,, of M.u name 
of Satakarni, and the first king of that name is called Hiri Katukuiiini Imth <. his coin* and iu 
the label on his statue at Nanaghat. Subsequent t5atakan.iia with wh<w nmues we meet ia 
epigraphjcal records added their metronymics to disfcinguiHh Mumwolvwfrom their }>re<l ( . (i( -H.sor 
jff., Gautamiputra Satakarni, Vasishthiputra Siva-gri gutalcarui ami (Jautunuputra ,Srl Yajfm 
batakarm It is therefore evident that this record refers to a &IUkan,i who wan a contemporary 
kmgm the Western regions. The name is not to be taken as a reference to au umdenlifk*! 
dynastic Me. And the only king of this dynasty who can a foiy be aeribed ti> tlu, peri,,<} when 
?-V U - ng **&**, the husband of Nayanika, and not (Jautm.uputra or 
L N* 3 T- ^ G rf amIpUtra Satakar9i Jt is to l)e ^^ l that the long 
7,f \ P ^ lule? gI Up d 6S not iaentio f'^ing or tho country of 

' ~~ ~ 

by l dtaoo^ 


before the formation of the Sfitavahana empire covering the whole of Marafchi-speaking 
(e.g.,, KhrurliMl, Northern Marifchl and KonkanI) area. 

The reference in the 6th line to the canal from Tanasuliya-vata, which was excavated in the 
year 1(W of Nanda, will fix the upper limit of Kharavela's time, like the reference to Muriya- 
kaia (the, time of Muriya in 1. 1C). Chalukya Vikramaditya VI in the Yedarfive inscription is 
said to have wiablishcd hi f'hiilukya era after abolishing the eras of Vikramaditya, Nanda and 
Saku. vi Having wild ' Why should the glory of the Kings Vikramf.ditya and Nanda he a hind- 
rance anv longer ? ', he, with a loudly uttered command, abolished that (era) which has the name 
of tfaka, and made that (era) which has the Chalukya counting ". l Aj.ain, we have the definite 
datum Mint Alberuni found in use in his time an era .with the initial year 458 B.C., which iiot-s 
back to the time of the first, Nanda king (Nanda Vardhana), 2 The year 103 of the Nanda c-a 
would correspond to !W> B.C. when the Tanasuliya canal, which Khara , ela extended to the capiud 
in the nth year of IUH reitfn, was originally excavated. If we take this Nanda to be the last Nanda, 
Kharavela would be referring to (325 B.C,-103=)c. 222 B.C. and not to any later year. But 
we 'have Homi't.hinf,' more definite in the next datum, namely, the contemporaneity with Baha- 
satimita In Hue I a KJiiiravela reaches the Sugamglya palace, i.e., the famous Maurya 
palace at Tfituliinitra mentioned in the MudraraMasa* Bahasatimita is expressly called the 
Kin of Ma-'udha Now we know from coins that Bahasatimitra and Agnimitra issued coins of 
the same tn>c Thin much we may take as certain that the time of Bahasatimitra, whosoever 
Mw .uay be, is the Ural, half of the 2nd century B.C.* AshSdhasena, who belonged to the royal 
Lily <>f Adhih,,hhatra, dcHcribca himself as the maternal uncle of Kmg BahasaUmitra m the 
SxbhL inHrription,' aud Anhadhasena dates his record in the 10th year o Odrak a> = whom 
Sh I lent iliedithaking of the Sunga dynasty. Bahasatim tra's corns have been ound 
at Ko am (KauttmW)' whh was a .tato on the borders of Magadha The characters of the 
at KOHIWU (^ / trntiHoimmhainscri-ption. 8 As Bahasatimitra does not occur m 

the I abhow H < o, we ) Kharavela's contemporary Bahasatmuta would belong 

fifth ku K o ho line. In other worn ^ ^ ^ ^ name rf ^^ 

^ ^ ^ ^ name ^ 

to a p W H between 188 (, ^^ }& ^ n given ^ the Pura^ themselves. 

putimitra m tlio Kunga Iirt. But we T 6 ^ . the ^ VM saya that be made his 8 sons 

It Ls reported thorn that I^pa^* t gnitra at Vidisa with a separate 

rule equally, < A , wi h equa pa ^ ^^ t ^ - ^ M ^ inlB ^ to - 
court of hin own. Probably the 6th son was ruling 

.,,,,.,,,..- i, U..B. l"St '' " ' tl.l^od.tumth.t vl .. nUed .t 

BhSrhut to " in the mgn *" 9 *" to . Tha Ti^J>. jlwe. in the imp.n.1 



Brihaspatimitra is not in the royal list of Magadha between Agnimitra's on and Odraka, we 
shall be justified in taking him to a period hefore Agnimitra's sons succeeded to the Magutlha 
throne, i.e., to the time of Pushy amitra himself, 1 

The most important contribution of the Hathlgurapha inscription is the synchronism ol 
Khara\ela with the Indo-Greek king Demstrios. This important dine-overy was in 
November 1919, 2 and it was settled that after the phrase Yavana-mja comos the name Dimita. . 
. . . , Be7ond this name not a single succeeding word of the sentence can be road. Demet.ntm, HOU 
of Euthydemos I, is generally well-known as the conqueror of India. It i mentioned i:; a verse 
of Chaucer quoted nearly half a century ago by Cunningham. Strabo refers to the faet that, 
the kingdom of Bactria had expanded in a remarkable way beyond its original limits and that 
the kings responsible for its enlargement were Demetrios and Menamler, 3 Beyond HUH nothing 
could he said about the Indian conquests of Demetrios before the dincovery of the kinpfs name 
in the Hathigumpha record, Justin calls him the king of the Indiana, He VWH probahlv driven 
out of Bactria by a rival king named Eukratides and had to Kettle down in Afghan iwt iin and 
India. The surest indication of his dominion over some part of India is the tune of the KhanVhth? 
script on some of his copper coins with the use of the title Aparaji&a^ Unfortunately we do 
not know the exact date of Demetrios except through synchronisms, He conducted ne^oi-ia- 
tions between his father Euthydemos I and Antioclms III of Syria aiui married the tattor'fl 
daughter. Therefore he must have been a young man towards the. cloo o{ the thin! century 
B.C. His Indian campaigns appear to have been undertaken when he had come, to the throne 
in mature age, and his coins show that he was between 30 and 35 when lib reign began. * 
Numismatists distinguish two Demetrioses, taking Demetrios II to be the aon of PemetrioH I.* 
It would be absurd to say that the Indian conquests of the first dynasty of the Bactn>*Griu*k 
kings were made by Demetrios II. The Indian campaigns of Demetrios and hiw advance at 
Pataliputra are distinctly described in Yuga-Purci'tya of the Gargl-safkhita. Thtihifttoriral text of 
the work has been recently collected from different MSS. by KPJ. 7 Section 5 contaiiiB the 
account of the Greek invasion of Pataliputra and a battle at that place. It is stated that after 
conquering Saketa, Mathura and Panchala the Greeks reached Kusumadhvaja, and at I'unh* 
papura, i.e., Pataliputra, there was a great battle fought on the mud- embedded western ramparts 
with engines (ballistae 01 catapultae), and the outlying districts became full of disorder. Further 
on (section 7) there is a mention of Demetrios as DharmainVta where it is distinctly stated that 
Ms officers would oppress the people. Finally it is stated that intoxicated with fighting the 
Greeks would not stay in the Middle Country and that there would be a furious civil war among 
themselves in their own country. This statement is corroborated by the Greek aecountB of the 
great civil war in Bactria and Afghanistan between Demetrios and his successors and Kueratides 

1 The objection of Prof. Rapson (Cambridge History of Mia, Vol. I, p. 537 note) that thftw in n Interval 
of 25 years between Pushyamitra and Odraka, and therefore Ash^haflcna, the maternal uncle of BfthawUiraitm, 
cannot be ^nnected with Batasatijnitra of Pabhoaa has not much force in a ootmtey where poopto marry 

than one *ite at the same time and where maternal uncles are often found to b much yotmtwr than their 

* It was announced by Sir 'Edward Gait m his presidential address to the Bih&r and Oriwa ReMtroIx Hoototy 
in 3920 (J. K 0. B. ., Vol. VI, p. 5). The late Kao Bahadur H. Kriahnfc SastH did ndt notice tfci* dlnoovwry 
ven m 1922-^3. Cf. Annual Report of ike Archaeological Survey of India, 1922-23, p. 130. 

* Cambridge History of India, Vol. I, pp. 444-45. 

* Catalogue of the Coins in the Punjab Museum, Lahore, Vol. I, p. U, Ha* 26. 
8 Cambridge History tf/ lndia> Vol. I, Pkte III. & 

Ibid. t p. 461. 

1 J, B. O, & 8. t Vol. XIV, pp. 397-421 and Vbl, Xt. p|i. 


and the kinga of the dynasty founded by him. Therefore his mention in the Hathigumphi 
inscription proves definitely that KMravela must have flourished in the first half of the 
2nd century B.C. 

The compilation (uySdayati) of the Atfoga* is described in line 16 as the crowning act of glory 
of Khiravela, This was undertaken and completed in the 13th year. Learned Jamas from 
all over India, were assembled in a conference (&amghayanam), evidently on the Kumari Hill 
of sacred associations, and they put together once more the scattered or lost sacred texts of 
Jainism. The Jama tradition asserts that in the reign of Chandragupta Maurya a Jaina con* 
ference was held at PH|ialiputra after the 12 years' famine was over but that no agreement 
could be reached as to the restoration of the texta. Kharavela's wide conquests from the Paudya 
country up to the North-Western Frontiers and from the Mar.ltha country up to Magadha and his 
consequent political influence made it possible for him to have the texts recompiled. That the 
term * Anga * denotes the Jaina canonical Angas is proved by the adjective ' consisting of 64 * 
{choyathi) t which, is a very difficult and mysterious expression. The Jaina tradition says that 
64 letters make up the Jaina sacred literature. The Jainas at present give a mystic interpre- 
tation, vide Mr. J, L. Jaini in hi* Introduction to the Jiv*-R]uw4a of the Gdmvwtasara at p. 12. 
He says : " The knowledge of Sruti, Sruta^JMna^ may be of things which are contained in 
the AAgas (Limbs or sacred books of the Jainas) or "of things putside the Angas. There are 64 
simple letters of th* alphabet. Of these 33 are consonants, $7 vowels and 4 auxiliary (which 
help in the formation of compound letters). The total number of possible combinations of these 
64 simple letters into compounds of 2, 3, 4, or more up to 64 letters is : 2 64 -~ 1184,46>74, 
40,73,70,95,51,615, ' 

41 These are the letters (simple and compound) of gruta in its entirety. This number bpmg 
divided by 16,348,307,888, which is the number of letters in a central foot (madhyamajMa) 
of the Par'amtgama (Sacred Jaina Literature), gives us the number of padas of the Angas, as 
11 ,283, 68,005, The remainder 80,109,175 gives us the letters of that part of Sruta whiph is npt 
contained in the AAgas. This part is divided into 14 Praklrnakas '*. 
. In our opinion the Jaiaas had an alphabet of 64 letters several of which were not actual 

letters but symbols, , T . 

One school of the Jainas maintains that only 11 Angas were recovered alter t^e loss, 
we read " Ailya^ti^uri^m instead of Amga jtiW*)'**"*' w W get the HI 
ing that the recompiled A%as were in two groups, Satika - saptiJca group of seven texte 
Turiya . torfy* a group of iou. texts, In any case the Jaina tradition about the loss and 
recovery of the texts stands confirmed, and here we find another instance of 
of the Jaina tradition. The monfes honoured at the Kumar! B1I m the 13th 7* 
baras as they were given pieces ol China-cloth (silk) (cUna-vatam ^^T^ 
tobes (v^Mni). KhiraveK by his religious enterprise, was emulatmg Chandragupta and 
Afidka, But posterity has completely forgotten him, 


* * A. *. i iToK^rro a t,v which has now disappeared, lay close LO 


^ujlbJrimft ii Krish^a-ver^* of the Baehfrakfita period and-the BIOC 
nagaram was probably a city on the river Musi in its upper reaches near 

* W * 

On tho ooounoo of * 
Polity,' I, 212 ; </. Ortewon, UnfiiMfp Surrey of I***, VoL X, pt. 4, . 

-- ante, 

The oonfluanflo of th JHM nd & 
on UM M4laUr POM* to ugge.ted 


As to the peoples mentioned in the inscription tiie Ra^hikas are probably t.h Mah&rathis or 
tlte people of northern Maharashtra, i.e,, the inhabitants of the modwu districts of East 
JJhiindesh; Nasik, Alunadnagar, Poona and the northern taluku of Hholfiptir ; the Bhojakaa 
are likely the same as Mahabhojas, i.e., the inhabitants of the Mjira^hi-speaking districts of the 
Central Provinces and Berar. 

The Tanasuliya or Tanasuliya-vata cannot he iclontificd bj- us. Vajiraghara remained 
under the same name till the 12th century A.D. when it is mentioned by KulMtun^a ChSja I or 
the Chalukya-ChoJa Rajendra Choja II, as Vayirfigara in the Tiruvoyj-iyflr Adhipurftvara 
temple inscription of the second year. It states that RajaWaarivarma?) alias Rajfridra Ch6]a 
II captured elephants at this place and defeated the king of Dhlira at Chakrakflf.fa. I n the 
Pandaya-Perumal temple at Conjeeveram another Tamil inscription of tin- 5th y<-ur of the same 
king, who is called Rujakc-sarivannao alias Kulfittunga Ch<*]a I, infcmiw m that the king's vic- 
tories at Vaijiragara and Chakrakotta were gained while ho was the hoir-appamit, '.., before 
8th October 1070 A.D. Chakrakotta has been correctly identified by Kai Bahaar'niralal with 
Chakra-Kotya in the Bastar State of the Central Provinces. It i thtircfure certain that this 
Vayiragara is the same as modern Wairagadh in the Chanda district of tho flame province Kiel- 
htorn restored the name Vayiragara as VajrSkara.^ Tho form Vajinyhara in thin record flhovs 
that the original form was Vajm-yriha or Vajm-ga&a in Prakrit which came to h written as 

KaSr^i M-, B V hakl ' a - K fra Md Waira ^ h aroo ^ Hrom Central 
Kalmga to Sonthern Malwa Goradhagiri is no doubt the anciont rmrno of the Bunlbar Hills in 
the Gaya d is tnct as proved by Mr. V. H. Jackson, I.E.S, the kte principal of the Patna C 
who, along wzth Mr Russell, discovered the inscription on bouMem r the tern, giving the 
M 7 ' 

u h 

- u 

U. place was an ^portant outpost on the western flank of the anei.nt capital of M Jdh 

potion, of the diMrioft of 


Jol. I, pp. 160 and 161. 


No 7.] 




1 [T\vo symbols] BTaroo Ar[i]b,arfitatiaifc 2 [.*] Namo sava-SidkSnaxfaJ.*] Aireia 3 Ma- 

liarfijena MShimeghavahanena 4 Clxeti-raja-Yasa 5 -vadlianena pasatha-subha 
lakh aneua chaturaiiita4ut;liita-gu^opahiteEa Kalimg-adMpatina 6 siri-KhSra- 


2 DaAdarftRa-vasSni siri-ka<Jara^sanraVata kl^ita bimara-kldika[*] Tato 

lekha a -rGpa^ga^anS lo -Yavahara u -vidlii la -visaradena saYa-vijavadatena nava-vasam 
Yovarajatrfil" pas&sitaih[.*] Sarhpniiia-cbatu-visati-vaso tadani vadbamana 1 *- 
aesayo Ven-Ibbivijayo 15 tatiye 

S Kali'hga-raja-va[iii]se purisa-yuge MaMraj-abMsechanami' papunati[*] AbM- 
Bita-mato cha padhame" vase[,*] Tita-yibita-gopura-pafcara-Bivesaiiam pati- 
B ailikharsyati[;*] K^ihga-nag^KluMra.iBi^^^ta4aga.pS4iyo cHa bam- 
dli&payatif;*] sav-uyana-pa[ti]samt]iapajiam cha 

4 karayati plnatUU iata-iahasehi Pakatiyo oka zaAj^itiC *] Dj^| > ^ 
vaw achitayita SlWkattolrfx" pacibima-disam ^ya-gap^ara-radha-Mhulam 
ridar ptWP^C K^a-be^t-^-gataya cba senaya vatas^am 
M[uJikii-nftgwaaii[*] Tatiye ptina vase 

cha nikhita-chhata- 


Nagararfi pavesa[ya]ti [. ] 







pasadark kSrayail 


12 M[a]gadhanarh cha vipulam bhayam janet o hathl Sugarhglyafrh] pSya* 
yati [;*] M[aga]dlia[m] 3a cha rajanam Bafcafsajtixraitarh 117 
payati[.*j Nariida-raja-mtaiii cha Ka[li]iiiga-Jinarh M sarfmiwfaa] 
[gaha]-rata[na]na[ra] pa^Iharehi 89 Arihga-Magad&a^vasuiii cha 

M . ......... katu[ih] jathara-l[i]kMIa barni sihsrSnl nivesayati sata- 

visikanam 41 [pa]rihareM[,*] Abhutam=achliariyaiii eha hathi-nivafa>pari- 
saram 42 .... haya-]iat]u-ratana-[niamkam} Paxii4a 4 ^rlja [cla^ecJioi anekSni] 

m[u]ta"ma^i-ratanaiii alxarapayati idha sa t[], 

J * .......... sino vasikaroti[,*] Terwame oh* vme supavata- 

vijaya-ckaka-Kumri-pavate arahayate pa-klii^a-sai&[ai jnahi kIya-BidlyIya 
yapa-navakehi 45 xaja-bMtmi china-vatani vs[4]-s[i]t*m w [;*J pfijSnurata- 
mvas[aga-Kha]ravela 47 -sirina jlv a-delia-[sm]ki parikhita 

15 ........ sukat[a]-sama^a-suviliitanaiii cba Bata-din&Mib ftanrilnaxb 

tapas[i]-is[i]naiii saibghayanaih^*] Arahata-ttisldiyft aaiwlpe pflbhfatt var-S- 
kara-samuthapitahi aneka-yojan-&Wt5hi pa si, o 

16 ..... ; ' Pa ^ alako chaturo ot * ve^flriya-gabhe thaifabhe patithS- 

payati[*] panatarlya sata-saha86pu][;*] Mtiriym-klla^oc^liinarft cha 
ctoyathM Amga- S atika[m] turiyaifa updayati[.^] Khenia-rj aa 
raja sa BMkhu-raja Dhama-raja pasa*M[o] 0unat[o] anubhavstfoj 

17 ' ' ' '' 

,. , 


I. I fufaib pto^ /. B. 0. B. ft, Vol.. m, IV A XIII. 

- TsrMir o( ^ oi * f>th " - 


. atnarasaMa.^pBttbabjy ^^ ^. . 


. later 

far mKad period. B^ ^ "" * Baghelkha^ and 


ol Bada^i. 

' Bhy, D 


are a branch of the YSdavas.* !fhe origin of thfe CiiSAig is thus stated by Pargiter : VHtaWia 
of the Yadava dan had three sona named Bhlma Kratha, Kaifika and Lomapada. " KaMika's 
son Ohidi founded the dynaaty of Ohaidya kings in Chedi.* "Prom Chidi the name of the clan 
as well EB that of the country became Chedi In the Bttddhist boots'Cheti is placed Wtw^en 
Malla and Varfwm indicating that the kingdom lay cloee to Kau&ambl in the Allahabad district, 
and it is very likely that modem B*ghelkha$<J was originally called Chedi fVasu, from whose 
line KhStavela 1 * family doHocndod (1, 17) w&s, however, not a Chaidya, but the conqtieror of the 
Chedi country. He wan fifth in descent from Kura who was the 72nd Aila ( /. R. A. $., 1910, 
pp, 22, 26*29). The Jaina flmvamh^Pum^ also includes Vasu in the Alleya list and' as the 
son of the founder of (Jhali-rafihfra in thw Virtdhyas (/, J3. 0. R. &, Vol. XV, p, 277). K. P. J.] 
(S, Kdiwg*MipalinQ.~'<- r Ckt term KaMga is usually applied to the northeim part of the 
Telugu-spcakmg districts of the Madras Presidency* In the PwatMs, Kalinga is associated with 
Anga (outh-eaHtorn Bihar), VaAga (eastern Bengal), Pu$<Jra (northern Bengal) and: Snhma 
(south-wcatern Bengal), The nauaos of these j&ve countries were given according to the names 
of the five sons of BiUi a i.e., the fcr&dition treats the kingdoms to be eariy Aryap conquests and 
states. In the V&yu and tke Bmhrn^a-P^rS^aSt Kalinga is associated with the Mahisha 
country* (later BtEhishiuatl, modern Btahesor in the Indore State on the rivei IjTarmada). This 
text would indicate that Utkftla was included in KalMga in the time oi Kharavda and tha later 
narae 04^ had not come into existence. The Parade te,xts further indicate, that the torn 
Utkala waft applied In early times to the billy country .b^ween Gayl ( and Orissa^i.g., modem 
OhhofS Na^pur and the Qarhjat States, "The Saudyumnas had been almost overwhelmed 
by the Inaviw and Pauiwas, and were reatricted to the Utkalas and other clans which occupied 
the hilly tracts from Gay ft to Orissa/* 11 The transfer of the term Utkala to the plain country 
along the sea-board is therefore later. . , . 

7, Sm-ka4Sra^arim^^.'^Kc4Sra mean^ reddish fair, according to Amara, and a sbve 
according to tha MidM* 11 it is a Prakrit derivation from katara, then it means " wo^ar<4 of 
A'Swin, 1 * according to the Sab&mBte ( V(icha8<patyam). The explanation given in the Ataman 
AMa is more suitable as meaning " of beautiful reddish body. " 

8, LeMm or Royal Correspondence, a manual of which was written in the time of the 
Ch]ukyw of AQAhilapfttyWft tmd has been published from Baroda, 8 This lekha cannot refer 
to the art of writing- The subject is dealt with in the ArfhaiMra of Kautalya. 7 

9, Rfipa must be the equivalent of r&yya raea^g cuyre^y. In the present inscription the 
position of the word rftpa shows that the meaning cannot be anything else. 8 The exact mean- 
ing of the terra in made clear by the explanation of Buddhaghosha on a passage of the Mahavaqga. 
The term is explained thus ; ** he who learns the rupa-sutm must turn over and over many 
Ktehapa$as/* ft Finally, the term rupa-dariaJca in the Artkatastra translated as ''Examiner 
of Coins*' shows that the term rflya was used in . oasqi ,afr >- the piesent faoaqpttcn with 

1 Pargltor, Amimi Indian JKitorfeaZ Tradition, p. 102. 
a Ibid., p. 109. ' '' 

* Pargitot, DynattiM of the K&K Ag^ p 54, 
a PargHw f Alston* JnMm Nlttoriaal Tradition, p. 292. 

* Mysore edn, (4810), pp. 70-75, - ' ''' ' , , ^ 

* ft la ImpoMiUi to llgiae M ht pMa learned acting. We dan eompto -the 

in th* Jdglm&rl oaw inmri}ition where ala 9 it may mean a currency officer, Tfce tarims aJo Mm * 

a CityMagliitmte who could reeognise ototo at a glance. Anmal *** <f *#fr*m* ^ af 

India* 100^-04, pp. 12840, It**. Ant.* Vbi XLVDl, p. M J31 . , ^ , 

* A JBL R, V<rf, XHI, p, 201 ' ' 




reference to currency. The term did not refer to silver currency alone but to other metals also 
as we find the terra tamm-mpa in the Arth&&asir&* 1 ' 

10. Ga^na. This term occurs in the Ar&atSstra and ha* been translated as Accountancy. 
An entire chapter has been devoted to it there and tho subject Is explained in detail It is cer- 
tain that this term could ncfc have been used for elementary mathematics in this inscription as 
supposed by Biihler. Knowledge of lekha, rupa, and gawn& is here coupled with that of 
law and learning and refers to a post-boyhood period. 

11. Vavahara.VyavaMra meaning Civil Law or Municipal Law as opposed to 

^ 12. FAZW or Eeligicus Law which is mentioned in Sanskrit legal literature as nositi 
injunctions. * "wve 

13. rowr^a*7autwi/yam.-T8varaiarh shows the nhortonin* of the Internal medial 

grapwc lightening of double 

* he incisi n f these two wor(la 


r r ese in thi8 

posed m the translate u adopted for want of a better one. There may I* a pun i 

the UBS of the Word wfiMiM which is the eaUy natre of the last 

sitrr* shws *? the sentence is in the act - **> * oo -t Af 

tins lane the forms are generally causative 7 


te settled in Centra] ga ' 

whose waves are brackhh '=the 

Ai} atoek held ^ Ganges and the 
country k-WB* the Rl jp u b5aa desert and 
Berth and East BibEr and Bengal propel -in he 
u generally recognised to be the xaodern BerSr 


but tb. dynast, 
^^o of the 
Kh5ravdtt G^M* ' one 

othap kin of the 
to he- an ^ or 

Ma * lcUui ' the 
in t}w 
C Untl 7 of Vidarbl 


^ it is an 
84, Engl. trano., 



19, Kotiitya>nagari.~~ The capital of the Kalinga country, very likely now represented by 
Kaliftgapatanam in the flan jam district. The ancient capital of Kalmga, according to the tradi- 
tion prevalent in the Chioacolc taluk of the Qanjam district, was swallowed up by the sea. Frag- 
ments of bas-reliefs of the Maurya period with the well-known protuberance on the head-dress 
have been, however, discovered by RDB, in the temples of Mukhalingesvara and Kurme&vara 
in the locality. The coast fiom Chhatrapurara to Masulipatam is subject to great cyclones dur- 
ing the north-eantern monsoon and the majority of ancient sites on this coast are buried in drift 

20, KkiWra-iri*t8la."~W* have examined these two words very carefully on the rock, cs- 
tampages and caata. The leading is perfectly clear but no explanation seems to be possible 
unless Khiblra is taken to bo a proper ntme of a IJishi who excavated the tank or lake or after 
whom it was named* In that case, the phrase will have to be taken as referring to a particular 
tank while tafilya and piltfiyo will refer to artifical excavations. 

21, P&t}iyo'"-**$kh P5Zf#,"~-Perhaps the same as the Podhiyaoi Western India, of. Pd%4u- 
U'QM cave No, 10, inscription No, 10, 1, 3. 1 

22 jSatafca/ftniwi. Evidently Sri Satakartji, the third king of the Satavahana dynasty, 
Ihd husband of queen Nayanika of the JSCilnSgMj; inscriptions in the Junnar tduk of the Poona 
district, 11 |"A to tho $atakar$i whose architect VflsSjjhiputra Inanda gave a t5raya tostufa 
Ko. I at SUchi see J. S. 0. JZ. &, XVI, p, 284. IL P. X]' ' ' ' ' 

23sira^a*2w?A#&-'*~th6 Sanskrit KpshyavSn! or the modern Krishna which rises near 
Dhor in the S&tM district. The river flows through the Satara, Belgaum and Bijapur dis- 
tricts and the KolhSpup and Hyderabad States into the Bay of Bengal through the Krishna 
district of tha Madras Presidency, It forma the boundary of, the Nizam's State from Alampur 
near Kamfil to Natidiglnia in the Kistna district. The rise of the Kpsh^J and its particular 
sanctity are doncribad in tha POMlfrkhawfa of the Padmapuraria.* The earliest epigraphical 
reference is to be found in this inscription and the second in the Nasik inscription in cave 
No. 10 of tho F&wlultyjA group wher it is called Kardbena* In mediaeval inscriptions it ia 
called Kfbhw*VitQqA>* There is ao doubt about the fact that Kharavela reached the 
Krishna omewhre in the long and erratic course of that river. It is possible that he went west- 
wards because the term pmhMm<Kwrh W expressly mentioned. But it is uncertain as to 
where ha reached the Kfishi^i, , , , 

24. Murikfrnagarv. The Mflshikas ftre a people ol Southern India as in the MaMbharato 
they are mentioned along with the VMOTISM.' IB the mtfa^Mm of Bharata they are pio 
bably coupled with the 2Wob* and the KMatos under the name UMfaJ In the FM^*- 
Purk<a the Mfisika country comes with the Strl-rajya. According to the commentary Jaya- 
mfygM on the XAnovttm of Vatayfiyana, the latter was a kingdom in the western part of the 
Vindhya country. 1 * There is a river Musi which joins the Krishna about the Nalgonda and the 
districts. It is mentioned under the same name in the inscription of the Bashtrakuta 

Mnfc, VoL VIII, p. 78. , ;, . ' 

J. Ji. 0, R. 8,, Vol. HI, plate 8. As to tke letter-fort of mi ijfacriptton reference may be mad* w tto 

1 * * r > M^^vo A K "R Vol X DD 1SI U< !- 

PoteoffmpJiy c/ Me HatMgumpha and Nawghat Iiucrtptvme, Mtmmr* A. *. -o-, voi. "* _ 
lH proved eUcwher* that b*tt Mid earlier forms oil the ohnraoter nsed in an inscnptaon depend m tt 
on locality. 

An&ndUram* edition (1884), pt. 4, VI, US, p. 1467. ' A*. Vol. VHI, p. 78. 

* j* v^i t/T 011 8 J5AwAifl^parwof Uh. IA, 

nfilWwt VQ1 V* / nwAJl* , __ _ tl/r 

fvrrT u /vi. MM it ^M^, *, iiflN A6.J8flmflW*w3Dlf* s ^ 


j-y OL( 

Govinda JI of the gaka year 692=769 A.D.* It is quite probable that the 
on this river. 2 

_ 25. ^V^^-m/a.-The reading is absolutely certain and the phrase should bo 
with reference to tatiye Kalimga-raja-mme. 

26. BatM^Bbjate stand for the MahSrathis and Mhi 

26. BatM^Bbjate stand for the MahSrathis a.nd Mahiibhojas of SiKaviihana inscription, 
an* ha rnmor jnscnpfaons of the same period at KaoMri, K^Ul and Bed5. The RftthikL Z 

a Mah b, 1S also caljed a Mah _ r _. a ^^ ^ M 

^habhoj 18 are mentioned in five votive inscriptions in' the K i cave l 

s ^rz ed tr rr p]ate inscription f the paiiava ki * 


" " Irn< " 1 tow " 1 " 
" ""' "'"" 


No. 7.] 



mentions a people called Avarni or Aruarrti near the Krishna. It is quite passible that the city 
of Pithurhda mentioned by Ptolemy as Pitundra (Ind. Ant., Vol. LV, p. 145), was founded by 
these people (J. S. 0. R. 8., Vol. XIV, pp. 15 ). v 

34. PtthuMa, According to Ptolemy, a city in the upper part of the Coromaadal coast. 
This i-ity has perhaps to b taken as the capital of the Ava or Avarni. 

35. Tramira or Tamira is the equivalent of Tamila just as Aira represents Aila. It has 
boon pointed out that Tamil ia the origin of Dravifct and of Drarmla. 1 Tremila would 
thus bo a perfectly correct substitute for Dramila. 

36. Mayadhcah. We have examined the rock very carefully. The cast of the inscription 
in the Patna Museum shows that the word cannot be Muriya aa proposed by Dr. F. "VT. Thomas. 2 
The chisel -cuts of the letters are still clear though the decay of the rook surface has made im- 
pression a of this part of the inscription smudged. 

87, Bahusatimitam. The act in the word is of the later 2nd century B.C. type in which a 
clear right-angle has been formed in the right limb of the letter and therefore it looks more Eke 
>pn than *. Tho reading is absolutely certain. 

38. KnKthga-Jinn perhaps raeaaa SitalanStha who was born at Bhadalapura, whieh is the 
same as Bhadrapura* or BhadrSohalam in the GSdavari district of the Madras Presidency. 

3i). pa^ikSrohi stands for pratMraih. The da denotes its difference from fcenhara in 1. 9. 

40. Arbya-Magodha. The meatioa of these two provinces indicates tha* the campaign 
of tho 12th yoar was peoiIly directed against South BihSr whibh now includes the ancient pro- 
vinces of Aftga (BhSgalpur and Monghyr districts) and Magadha (Pfctoa, Gaya and part of 
Hazaribagh dintrict). 

41. *^o-OT*tfanoA--Th reading ia aot doubtful though rt was read slightly dnlerentJjr 
bfor. Th rcfewnoe seems to be to architects (wvtmJcas). 

42. halhi-nwa9<>paritarttrh.~-ma reading of the second wowd of Hie phrase is more reliable 
than the previous one (kathi-nSvaw-pariyumrk)* m&8<*=*mn8sa.* Th* rferrce seems to 
be to elephant pwserres or same original form of kheda arrangement, *prente4 by Kh5rvela. 
The elephant* of Kallnga were Tcy teamtf in ancient India. Th* strength of KMrvd& pro- 
bably lay in elephant*. He toot the fort of PSfaiiputra with tier telp of elephants. 

4. P^.^.-ror the tottx /, roHf m 1. 15, !* Sawfateed version of the nwne of 
the groat Dravidian ela* is Pi^ya and is derived from X^ by ; ,j*l ^ of eariy gram- 
naariaas. la the iwcriptions of Asoka also the vowel in the first syllable long. 

44. P-H-*o*Wlt.-The reading seems to be tolerably certain oa the rock, though it 



.* Vol. XLIIX ?. 04- 

* JM. M.. VoK H, 

Put Kmi 
* rdll^ow Hit *) -45. P 

JTF. ^. rf-, 1922, p. 84. 
v /. Kamandakfya-mtisa'ra, XV, 7 
y . Vol I, P- H*. whew he cite* J*iim tests ' " 



[ VOL, XX, 

49. Simdhuldya. The recognition of the corebial la is duo to a suggestion of Prof, H. Liideis. 
In other cases the cerebral la is changed into ra in the dialect naod in this inscription. 

50. sata-sakasehi. This reading was fully established by us when we examined the rook 
jointly in November 1919. This reading along with the reading of the paaaage Amffa & , etc* 
brings to a close the long controversy about the existence of a date in the Maurya era in this 

51. [The read'ng Rajasi-Vasii-Ma has been corrected by me (from -Mna-kula) after 
Mr. Banerji's death. King Vasu of Chedi is known to the Pura^as (see J t K. A, 8., 1910, 
p. 22 ; JOA,, I. ch. fl3). Cheti-rataP in 1. 1 refers to King V,:su, The inscription hero confirms 
the Pnranic genealogy. The Jaina Harivamia Purd^a also gives Vasu in the Clifldi list (Oh 
VII) and as an Aiie^a. /,' B. 0. R. 8., Vol. XV, p. 277, K. P. J.] 

52. mnisrito. This is the only instance of the use of the palatal fa in this record. The 
form is certain both on the rock and impressions. 


(Line 1) Salutation to the Arhats (Ankats^lli. < Conquerors of Enemies ,* if Ji na ) 
Salutation to all the Siddhas. By illustrious KMravela, the Aira (Aija), the Great King* 
the descendant of Mahazna^havahana, the increasor (of the glory) of the Chati (OhMi)' 
dynasty, (endowed) with excellent and auspicious marks and featuras, poiaemctd of virtues 
which have reached (the ends of) the four quarters, overlord 1 of Kall%a 

lf ( t^ f rf tee \^ Bj 7 ith Bbod J rra * d 7 Md handsome were played Vouthwiwi sports; 
alter that (by *,, ^o) had mastered (royal) correspondence, currency, financ^ civil and r*li. 
gious laws (and) who had become well-versed in all (Jnmrfet) of learning, for mm years (the *ffi<* 
< h ^77f ^ as ad ^ i8t ^d. Having completed the twmt r foitrth 

time, ( kej who had been prosperous (wOom**) since Ma Mmey (!) m d whc i 

to have wide conquests as those of Vena, 

coron ftt ion in the 

instmnMn ^ " befow 

" 3Kbi *W 1 Dft s ^ 


"tmv stron" in cavalry, elephants, infantry (nara) and chariots (ratha) and by that army 
li vinsr reached th<> Kaftha-bo iiija, he throws the city of the Musikas into consternation. 


(L 5) (Ac) vera<td in the science of the Gandharvas (i.e., musics-entertains the capital with 
the exhibition of <tapa, 1 dancing, singing and instrumental music and by causing to be held 
festivities and assemblies (um&jt) ; similarly in the fourth vtar, '-the Abode of Vidya- 
dhara* ' built by the fonaor Kalingan. king(s), which had not been damaged before ........ 

...... w ith their coronets* rendered meaningless, with their helmets (?) (Mma) 1 cut 

in wain (I), and with their umbrellas and 

(I, 6) Mm/am* ea*fc away," daprived of thoir jewels (i.e., rcetana, Skt. ratna, precious ob- 
all the fUpiika* ami Bhojakas (he) causes to bow down at his feet. Now in the fifth 
. b -inaw into tho capital from the road of Tanasuliya' the canal excavated in the year one 
unrodJtto of King Nauda' ...... :;' ....... Ha * bee " ^ )aU0 ' 

inted (A wWte) ^^tating the EajasQya, remits alltithes and cesses, 

(L 7J bJtowi many privileges* (amown^ to) hundreds of thousands or tixe City-Corpora- 
the Kalm-Corporatio D . In the seventh year of his reign, his famous wife of Vap- 
obtained the dignity of auspicious motherhood ............ Then m the aghth 

f Ac^ wit,h a largo army having sacked Goradhagiri 
'(L 8) eauTes pr^ure" on R&Jagaha (Eajagriha). On account of the oud report of 


No , 348) ^a KOB^T (.loto 0n**taK*. Vol. I, p. ) m fav^of interpret- 

' Th oplnloa of LUdew (IM Mo. "^"^JJ ,. aooepfibte 'to F^^ * * * "^*^ ns of f^ 
103 jfMM **1 >t ^ J^l I^hew( A 0. S. &, VoL XIH, pp. 237-238). Soch 

namtor. re not untoowu ia VWo ^^^^ tic jl (asjukys VikramSdity. VI (Bo**** 

ol King Nwid'. On Nl era, ""JJ" ^ Q curreat ^ the time of Alberum, the dkoua- 

t Vol. I, Ft. U, P. 43) d T B Sr5 Soeie^ (Vol. XHI, pp. 237-241). 
to ubjob in the JoW 

.- - > 

. JP(^o.~^th*dii M ioa<th^ Mt "^^^ ^ materials. The queation of identi 

M o rpmte body ia i now put beyond w^ ^^ Thj8 ^ ^ ^ Gnpta 

^* ^KthStw^ole^SomeWseaUof Naianda'-WO Probably 
[I ^"J^J^K^S local Ja fl ajxA. In the HatMgumpha 
tto oeatna /AHpto *" *^ up d ^^^7*^ to one 

' " ^ : 

,L. ,)V TTOfctto meaning *- 

down, inflict. * , sacks V W - * b coutmted 


(L. 9) Kalpa 1 (wiBh-faifilling) trees, elephants, chariots with their drivers, houses, resi- 

es and rest-houses. And to make all these acceptable (he) gives at a fire sacrifice (?) exemp- 
tion (from taxes) to the caste of Brahmanas. Of Arhat. ..... ............................ 

(L-10) .................. (He) causes to be built ---- a royal residence (called) the' 

Palace of Great Victory (Mahavijaya) at the cost of thirty-eight hundred thousands. And 
in the tenth year (he), following (the time-fold policy) of chastisement, alliance and conciliation 
sends out an expedition against Bharatavasa (and) brings about the conquest of the land 
(or, country) ........ and obtains jewels and precious things of the (kings) attacked. 

( L - n ) ................ And the market-town (?) Plthurhda founded by the Ava 

King he ploughs down with a plough of asses ; and (he) thoroughly breaks up the confederacy 
of the T[r]amira (Dramira) countries of one hundred and thritecn years,* which has been a 
source of danger' to (Ms) Country (Janapada). And in the twelfth year he terrifies the lanes 
of the Utarapatha' with .................. thousands of 

. N (3 f J 2) '. .............. And cau sing panic amongst the people of Magadha (he) drives 

(M elephants mto the Sugafcglya' (Palace), and (te) makes the King of Magadha, Bahaati- 
nuta, bow at his feet. And (he) sets up' (the image) ' the Jina of Kalixhga which had been 
token away by King Nanda .................. and Cause8 to be b hfc ho|M ^ 

Amga and Magadha along with the keepers of the family jewels of .................... 

(L " 3) 4" ' I' " a " ', ...... (He] builds excellent towers ^h ca^ed interiors and creates a 

rfi " i * T nS) givtDg ttem exemption fr m land *' A d a wonderful 
marveUous enclosure^ stockade" f or driving in the elephants^) ...... and 

numerous pearl8 i 

^sxs?" jKiS or ^ * Mw>rd% ^"==^2=== 

wnte. of to th* ^ JL^ JS2* SSi Mkrit rr 8 * is MI> foiiow ' d * j ^ 

attoohiBg to tte tem Mji?te mongBt^i Pf bably OWin * * * "IfBlflowwe *Iwdy 

* me * n " 3 y<MUH - not P oW to conformity with the tater- 

' A* the ^oord Jf 1 * "Tf * SBm ' W ^~K. P. J.J 


^..^ ,v w iwuuionea in t&v Mudrar&fahasa / A** rm '* ?i.*^\ "' ** * 
This must have been near or on the 0^es K3k" i > ^ ft8 P<a3liao6 of 

fortified palace. v ^ " A^TlA' fl entry by meaaa ^j 6 JbpJto*it* m pm wm> I* WM a 

>r stockade. ' ^^^ *** ^*A*%f aa wirodia of ^iibaato (XV, 7). wrI 

- . _ r ^~ ~~-~ MwHt'is/v euu\f\jLv vijK Bftftnino 1 rvr +! x _x j -T ^p, nmnw.HH WWMII VVVWUWJA 

ora is enoksure pr stockade. * ^^^ *^ ^w?wfot%< o tt iwrt^^ O j |Je jjyyj^ ^y^ y^ -^ 

u ^jwia.w/aya-oftaAa; Skt suwa^^i^ 



Coffers respectfully * royal maintenance*, China clothes* (silks) and white clothes 3 
' ) l^e extinguished the round of lives/ the preached 

t the Belie Memorial, By Kharavela, *. 

*a a layman devoted to worship, is realised (the mtore of) jw and deka' 

IT un briMing about a Council* of the wise ascetics and sages, from 
hundred ("I " 'vil')" quarter's,' 'the monies (*a W ) of good deeds and who have fully 'Mowed .<* 
*?1 i. ' . . ^r the Belie Depository of the Arhat, on the top of h 




stonea brought from many miles (yojana*) 


(he builds) shelters" for the Sixhhapatha Queen SiadHufci 

"' PafakM?) (Ae) sets up four columns inlaid with teryl.. 

at the'cosVif ^eniy-flve hundred thousands ; (b) causes to be compUed e^ously Ae 


Kling of Prosperity , 

/T 17^ .....*.. COO*nP*loAJL^W' J"* CA.W*WW*****- / - * t ,, 


the Great co^eror, the King, the illustrious Kharayela. 



that year a No. 8 of Appendix A 

-.^ btter -ivea a more reauonable meaning. 
^^ theeftrlie8t referee to the .* 
formerly red aa WM-*- "worn 

l*tw on oonnoted with the SvSUmba * 

- 8k*. KMtoTtti- . . . j,. '< ! interpreted in ^tew of fl w to 

- Ski, "" -t ^ J** P* 

* VII); 


o WM ua^*ye4ifiii* Il ^ /i ^ l ^ 1 

by J. L. J*fBl, Introduotion, p. 



" The plate which is rectangular in shape is 16*4" long and 11*5* broad. At the top of the 
plate, just in the centre, there is a flat projection 1*4* broad and 1" high shaped into the form 
of an arch. There is a small hole in the arch through which passes an ordinary copper ring 175* 
in diameter. The plate has sufered a slight damage at its proper right corner at the top. But 
the writing on either side is in good state of preservation. The plate with the ring weighs 
230 tolas, 

The language of the inscription is partly Sanskrit and partly Kannacja. The first six 
verses are in Sanskrit and the next six in Kannada, the rest being in Kannada prose. The 
Kannada verses are defective both in diction and in prosody. The record is written in Kannada 
alphabet and is rather indifferently inscribed. The letter wt is often written like ra and it is 
not_easy to distinguish ya from ru (as in Timmarasa inline 17). The aspirates are generally 
d^tinguished by means of the" vertical stroke at the bottom except in the caso of dha The 
secondary form of va is sometimes used (wlla in 1. 36 and vurolage in 1. 37). With respect to 
orthography : (,) the consonants are invariably doubled when they art, preceded by rgp/ia 
(tt) the nasal is generally changed into an anusvdra before consonants of the same class (Hi] the 
consonants are freely used in place of vowels (e.g., ye for * in 1. 21 and m for o in 1. 14) J 1h 
letter sa is sometimes wro-no-lv used for sJia (11. 8 and 42) " * v * * * - * 

The ^object ^of the inscription is to register a grant of land made by Madda-Heg ff ade the 

" * 

details correspond regularly to A.D. 

Verses 3 to 6 describe 

extol the donor 

The inscription then states that 

varaya, was ruling the (F 

was the ruler of the districts f 

* br 4 Sunday 

V ? MB| * ( Ma ^ v1 ). tho 24th Jina. 
Htou who belonged 

tell us noth VW8B8 ' wUcil foUw ' 

^^ except that ha bdonged to the 

? t Wn f KSf) ' < Vv " 7 ' 12 ') 

flUt9MBt f kin 


_ _ 

ina^meaaiBg.aem% f 

- wwnw or A * a *T^ ta * <**y*y, v**aawday, 


s ituated ia the village of MaHSru and yielded an income of 80 tw^.x T Ms income, it states 
was to be utilized for the daily rice offering, for the Mlu-dhare (milk-bath*) and foHwffi? X 
assembly (of ^ ) on the 1 7th and 25th day. of every month. Provisio^ "al So mlde ^ 
expenses to be incurred when either of these days happened 60 he a M,dgala(a)^rayodadl M m i 
Chawaviwajl from Poona has kindly pointed out thai;, according to the colophon of tie 
Digambara Jama ^ork Yamharaekariya, Mangal^trayod^l is the 13th day of tie dark 
fortnight of Aftvina. 

Sad&iva-N&yaka of the record was the first prominent chief of the Ikkiri-KeJadi family 
which held away over the whole of South Kanara and parts of the Mysore State from the 16th 
to the 18th century A, D. 1 Since very little is known about liim, a short account of his career 
may be given here. He was the elder of the two sons of Chauujappa, the governor of Malla- 
desa, the younger being Bhadrappa. Soon after SadaSiva succeeded Ms father, his first act was 
to reduce to submission by the order of RSmarSjayya, who was the de facto ruler of Vijayanagara, 
the kings of Bijapur and K&IyS^a. Immensely pleased with this achievement of Sada&va, the 
emperor appointed him governor of Chandragutti, Barakuru and Mangaluru, besides bestowing 
on Mm the title of JT^e-A^oAaiIa 8 (disturber of forts) and the privilege of affixing the term of 
honour rSya-n&yaka to his name. SadaMva's next expedition was against the rebellious chiefs 
of ChaudraguttI and Bldar and in recognition of his achievements he got the biruda of $o*m- 
#ajp3%a/*ampk He next put down the chiefs of Tuju and Kira}a and set up a pillar of 
victory. Shortly afterwards, he punished the defection of two chiefs named Ye^ava and Muriri 
in the country of JUihl)u and received as a reward the title of Yetjava-Murari from tie 
emperor. Sometime later, ha marched against Midarasa of Baaklpura and took Mm 
prisoner. By this time SadSiiva* younger brother Biadrappa who had gone on a pilgrimage 
came back. "After governing the provinces conjointly with his brother for sometime, Sada&va 
nominated him as his successor with the surname Immadi Sada6iva-Nayaka and retired to 
the forest/ ' ' i 

The tf *t of SadliiirarNftyaka may now be ascertained; Our grant is dated in Saka 1479 
(A,D* 1658). Ths latest date available for him, w. f Saka 1486, Dundubhi 5 (A.D. 1562) 
is furnished by a record at Ms^igtokSri near BSrakftr. AndSaka 1473, Sadhara?a fi (AJX 1550) 
is the earliest date that we have for him from Ms inscriptions. In fiaka 1488, Kshaya 7 (A.D, 
1508) Immacp SadiAi^Niyaka is known to have been ruling, Sada&va-Nayaka must, therefore, 
have ceased to rule sometime between A*D. 1562 and A.D. 1566. So the period in which he 
flourished may be taken to ba A- D. 1560-156!?* he djats ^smgiied to him by Eica, m&. 9 
A, D* 151S-1545 is, therefore, not correct, 8 Here it is necessary to say a word about Immafli 
plaot ia tlie genealpgy of the Kejadi fa-imly. Though a 

* A iwAJb Is 4wl to ^ wpees* 

ol wMdh, m act otaur* ' ^ ','^. v ' ;; ' ' , 

an account ol thta fAm% oa A. A B. to IQli-tt, PP- ^ * '* * Bwe^ Mysore d 

m otham M follow are fo^d in most of 
^d on JToiHto * Jfcw^iV of 

edited bj Meww, B. Enmn %*<*, MX, IL.B. and Vidvan F. 
* No, 168 ol 1001 , 

If* Cant., VoL VIII* 


Qmypom Zmetiirtton** table on p. 


[Voi. XX. 

of his inscriptions 1 has been discovered he has not been included in the table* of the house 
published by Eice, perhaps, because his relationship to other members of the dynasty was not 
known to that scholar. Now the work Sivatatvaratnahtm enables us to say that Inunadi 
Sadasiva-Nayaka was the younger brother and successor of Sadasiva, 

^ The sage Bhanu, who has been highly eulogised in the record, must have been one of the 
Jaina teachers of that name who were replaced by Lalitakirtis in about Saka Iii86. 8 Nothing is 
known about Devachandradeva at whose instance the grant was made, his guru, Munichandra- 
deva and his guru Abhinavaderaklrttideva. 

With regard to the geographical names occurring in the inscription, the village Mallaru 
may be identified with Malluru in the Udipi Taluk; Bejuguja is the well-known Havana 
Bejgoja k the Mysore State; Kopana is KopaJ, a famous place of pilgrimage of the Jainaa 
in the Nizain's Dominions ; Parvata is probably identical with Srfsailam in the Kurnool Dis- 
trict, which is one of the twelve great centres of Saiva worship.* G6kar*a in the village of 
that name in North Kanara; Tirumale is the celebrated Tirupati in the Chittoor District 
tTjjantagiri, which appears as tJrjayat-giri in the JunSgadh inscription of Eudradaman ia 
the Mount Gimar on which there is an ancient temple of NSminStha. ' 


First Side. 


6 bana-^-vrajah I akhamda.s ri .tap6-lakshm i .nayak5 Bhtou-^yaml || [5*] Srlmad 

aaukhy-arnn^av, magnayan" |, [6*] T+** 

*Mp. <7or,, Vol Vffl, ftpr 2, 3 aad 4, 
1 Jf^sore antf Coorp, p. 157^ 

Aboy, VoLVni.p.m^f.n^. 



11 pamguja-bali adhipatiyatm poin-galasade(a) nelake ilw. nyipa-ku]a-tijakaiii I saifagata- 


12 po[ga}gu]rh Atiigaja-jayaJina-pad^bja-madhukaran-errLbaiii || [8*] BhU-deviya mukha- 

kaihnacji badftrfi [hlva> 
ii t..<tA RilniiV'-eiiiHicla naujaraih ! ildaradiiiinwadaTo[lga] mSdini-mata*Dliarmmanatliaa= 

XO IJipijW <****['** F r ^ 

ena(Hfi)suih Jinapam || [9*] A-nagara- 

14 kk=adhipatiyum &rl-;pati Tiru[ma]raaa-n?ipa [a]vanl-tilakain | vSmanadali 1 atanuih v5ta 

karaih Mukti-La- 

15 kshiuig-'ittaih manamarh || [10*] YSn-einbe Madda-Hegeade d5na-chatu[r]-widhakke tane 

chiiiita-ratnath BaniBu(nnu)t f a-guiia-gaiia- 

16 nnilcyarh" urhnnata'^tlavanu talda [n^pa-ripu-sarnaaram II [11*] Dhaimmadojam [dpdta]- 

hittanu nirnutiala- t . . 

17 guru-bhaktiyalli Tirumarasa-miparii Dharmma-JiDa-Jama^asanamam vom-mandua tanu 

18 dmtn^LiM ILW*| Svasti Sri [II*] Jayadbtudaya* Saiivahana-Saka-varska 1479 

19 A* Kftrtt'ika^i^ddLii Adityavaradalugrlffia^maliaraiadhirajaraiaparameSvara saiya- 

8 Mikrit, Kd wrwa oth*r JMn* t^h-* 


32 varugalu tamma guru Munichamdradevarugalige svargg-Spavarggakke karaijav-agi 


33 lu dharmmavanu mSdabek-erhba cMttadimda Tirumalarasarada Madda-Heggafcyaia 


34 $eyu avara najinavaru ga$a-[p]a$a-samamtara kutjeyu Kapina Ixalara sahayadira- 

35 da dharmrnakke vomdu kshetravanu ko4abeku yerhdu ohittaisal-figi avarugaju dharnima*> 

36 paii^ama-svarupavane vullavar=ada karaiia guru-bhaktiyiiiida tamma aluieya* 

37 lu Ma^ajr^emfca [vujr-olage padu[ya*]$a dikkinalu Kajarutopatina bajkeyalu agaji- 

38 mda volage bettina gadde 1 kkam bija ba}{a mu[ra]ttara lekkada batba mQ4o ii rnattaify 


39 galimdam borage Papinadiy-emba ga[dde] 1 kkazh bija bajja mflvattara lekkada bija 

40 mu^e 4 mattam bagila gadde 1 kkam bija balja muvattara lekkada mu^e 4 gadde iiiii- 

Second Side. 

41 rakkam bija miide 10 I bhuroigalige vulla kare mure mane bavi talasu ralvu BU- 

42 ihbe nikkilurkkamrdde kadiiu jala pa&a(ska)$a salia mula-dhaxeyanu yera(oredu) ko- 

43 ttu yisikomda do$$a vara(a)ha ga 80 aksha(a)radalu yeriibhattu vara(a)ha yl ho* 

44 nnige yeradu be]eyalu salia varsha 1 kke baha akki arfigac^ya korigeya 

48 baj[}]a aiv^ttara lekkada akki mu4e 24 I akkige nacjUva dhamxmada vivara Kftpiua bast)* 

46 ya kejagai^a neleyalu Dharnuxia-Tirtha[iQ*]kara-saniiidIiiyalu madhyShna-kS!ada!u nityadar 

47 lu dina vomdakke voihdu bajja akkiya naivedyakku [Mu]niohamdrad5varugala hm^ 

48 rinalu nadia[va] hala-dharegu saba akki mii4e 10 tirhgaju tirixgaju tappade tixfi- 

49 gajalli 17 tohaga na4ava yara 1 mattaA ippatta-aidu 25 hShiga na$ava 

50 vara 1 amtu timgajalli yeracju vara samadaya 1 na<Javudakke akki mft^wu 1 

51 12 I Tara%aIaffi,Mamgala(a)-trayodai bahaga a Marfigala()-tray5da6i na4ava- 

52 [de]m[du*] viSeshav-agi ytrisida akki mu^e 2 aihtu akki inQ^e yippatta-Bllku * 

53 yi djiarmioada sthajadalli BaJJa|arige anaya sanlya saUadu flla I sthaQapgadalu* idda 

54 vokkalige bitti bi^ara salladu kaijike dese appa^e padadalli yettu(a) salladu yeMu 

55 wrwaiaanyaT-agi Tirumalarasaraada Madda-Hegga(Jeyaru avara nllmavaru ga 

56 ^Tpaj^smaiiiW saha tami^ dharmma-paiiijama-iximittaY-Sgi tauoma BvaxQ(rti)chi 

57 ynhda guru-bliaktiyiijaida vo^aiabattu barasi kotfca tl^bra^SsaBa imta- 

58 ppudikke sSkshjgaiu ati(dH)kari XJaUfruffi Cha|;a Bikra-se^i SSma^i 

59 set$i Eija-setti Bagge-[se*]ttiya ajiya Kosaw Mfiliira Bejile BmtmSJa 

60 Dugga Baia^ari Birusama^ii yimt=inivara vub!hay-anma[ta*]diifx Ma- 

61 ihgalura SajJblcai^Smabovana baraha [I*] yirbiM dharioma-6sa[na*]kke 

62 'jB*kX*UL<Ul ^Il*]^a-^tta[d*]^vigu]jaiiipu^yai& 

63 para-datt-apahare^a sva-dattaiu ni^(sh)phalaitL bhavSt || DaEa-pSlaiiay6r.*mmad% 

64 daaaclx*<5klirey6--nupalaiiaifc danat*svarggamav5p]a5ti pfilanM-achyutaitt 

65 padaih || yi(!) diarmma-Sasanakke avanan^obba Jamanad4va tappidare Bt}ugu- 
66^da Gmmatanatlia Kopa^ada Chafcdjanatha tTjJaiiita-giriya 

6T modalada J Jina-bi&baga]an=o(Ja(e)da papakke koharu Saivan-adare Fa- 

1 Bead aamudaya. 

* Tfee letter [fa] is written below the line. 

* Rf&d sthafrdalv. 


68 rvvata-GSkarnna-modalildavaralli 1 koti-limgavan=o<Ja(e)da papakke hohara 

69 Vaishnavan=&daro Tirumale-modaliidavaralli k5ti-Vislinu-niurtiyaii-orla(o) 

70 da p&pakke hSharu || Bhadrarh bhuyij-Jina-sasanasya [ H J Sri [ ||* ] 


L. 1. Obeisance to Dharmmanitha ! 

V. 1. For the translation of this vorso see above, Vol. XIII, p. 22. 

V. 2. Hail ! The illustrious Vardham5ria, the lord of Jinas, who adorns the seat (symbolic} 
of universal sovereignty of all knowledge and who brightens the Sy&tMdu school. 

Vv. 3 and 4. Bhlnu, the lord o! sages, the ray of enlightenment of the moon to the Tim- 
tri^-gachohli* ocean, the swan in the lake of pure faith (i.e., Jainism), a lion to the elephant 
of religious disputants, the dispeller of the darkness of ignorance, the elephant among ascetics, 
shines in the sky of Ki^ttr-gava, 

V. 5. The sage Bhinu who broke asunder the multitude of arrows of Cupid by his arrows, 
the five practices (5oMra*) is the lord 1 of the ever prosperous Goddess of Penance. 

V. 6. The illustrious Bhlnu, the lord of sages, the reducer of the masses of darkness to dust 
by hundred fresh rays of knowledge, stands victorious in the heavens of ByStoada religion fos- 
tering eternal prosperity among the assemblage of lotuses in the (kh of) the pureMGla-saifcgUa 
and immersing sages, the herds of lovely fc&M, in the ocean of happiness. 

V 7 Mftdd*4If ft <4, the ruler of the city of Kap-be he ever radiant on the earth like 

the shining pendant worn by the king, in the form of the Tu}u country 
V 8 the lord of the ternt 


- of the godde. Barth; the^n shines 

lion written (to tfcrt tffeot), 6iivahaaa aka year 1479 expired (corns- 

D. 18L &II! ho*** I fcth \ P TSofn^thaJfofKirttlka,onSund W> 

**b* to) the cyolio yer Na|a, on the 1st W f ^ b ^ odde88 of Fortune on the right 
LI. 19ff. when Bm*Iyy. who was as i twer e, adamantine cage 


LI. 23ff. and while Madda-Heggade who had the name Titumalamsa, an ornament to the 
lotus face of the damsel the Tuluva country, the young sun (emerging from) the eastern mountain 
viz., the throne of Kap which is from time immemorial famous in all directions, (the incantation 
a* it were of) all the ancients like Bharata 1 radiant with, the rays of multitudes of ornaments 
of fresh gems, the collection of many virtues, which were possessed by no other man of royal 
descent, viz., friendliness, generosity, prowess, sweetness, profundity, policy, politeness, truth 
and purity, etc., was ruling the chiefdom of Kap assisted by his assembly, communal and pro- 
fessional guilds and his subordinate officers ; 

LI. 28il hail ! 'Munichandradeva, the disciple of Abhinavadfivakfrtidflva, the ScMrya of 
*he circle of royal preceptors, the lord of great disputants, emperor of all learned men, resplondant 
with several such Urudas, the foremost (follower) of the KfyHr-gaw ; 

LI. Slff. his disciple Devachandradeva requested Tirumalarasa, alias MadcU-Howa^o, his 
assembly, communal and professional guilds and his officers to grant a piece of land with ' the 
help of several (people) of Kap, with the intention of instituting a charity at Kap for the final 
beatitude of his guru Munichandradeva ; 

LI 36ff. and as they were of a charitable temperament, they, out of devotion to their pre- 
ceptor, granted, with pouring of water, on the western side of the village of Malllrti (situated) 
within their province, in the place called Kalantopatina-bajke, on the inner bide of the trench 
^"9** ^ (f^ sowing) of 2 muc}eot paddy calculated at 80 *//(/* each 
outside the trench one wet land called Papmadi requiring 4 mfl* calculated at 30 

and a bagila land requiring seed of 4 mfitfe calculated at SO bafla ; (in dl) thn* wot lands 
seed of 1Q ^ with the ptopeHieg atkched ^ J th~ w* lands 


LI. 58f!. The witnesses for this (transaction) are : Atikari (Adhikari) Kamta-setti, Chata 
Bikra-BOlti, ttotnaiji Sartikara-setti Raja-se^i, Bagge-setti's nephew Kesana, Mulura Belile, 
'BirumSja l)uga and Barhdiiri Biruaarani. With the consent of all these, Samkayi-Senahova of 
Mariiguliir wrote thia. Prosperity and good fortune to this charity deed ! 

LI. <52lT. Imprecatory versos. 

LI. 6511 Any one who violates this charity, if he is a Jaina, shall incur the sin of breaking 
the images of Gummatanatha of Bejaguja, Chandranatha of Kopana and Nemisvara of tfjjan- 
tagiri and other Jaina idole ; if a Saiva, he shall incur the sin of breaking a crore of lingas at 
Farvata, G6kari?.a etc, ; if a Vaishgava, he shall incur the sin of breaking a crore of images 
of in (holy) places like Tirumale. May there be prosperity to the Jiw~6asam (doctrine). 
Fortune ! 



This short inscription was found at Samoll in the district of Bhomat in Mewar and is now 
preserved in fcho Rljputana Museum at AjmSr. Prof. D. R. Bhandarkar has already noticed it. 1 
It consists of twelve woH-engravod lines of writing, covering a space of about 9J"x 10J" . The 
stone being slightly broken at the lower right corner, a portion of the inscription is missing. A 
few letters here and thwe are also indistinct. The average size of the letters is about |*. On 
account of its importance ae the earliest inscription of the Guhila family of Mewar, a detailed notice 

of it is given bolow. 

The charactr belong to the northern class of alphabets of the acute-angled type. They 
arc almost similar to thosa of the Udaipur inscription of Aparljita of V. S. 718 (A. C. 661) though 
the f5tr&r of tho vowels 0, , I, M and A have different forms. The language is incorrect Sanskrit 
and the inscription is written very carelessly. As a result, the metres employed do not always 
fltand scanning, and the meaning is alao not quite clear in a few places. As regard* orthography, 
the following points may be noted ;-* is used for in ryfaftft (L 4), * J *> r m W*^ 
(I B) and *&afi (I 8) ! the ***** is used for * in ^rtUte (1 8) and as redundant 
it*. (I- B) aad #llta*m>**Wir fl-7); * marga ^ ^m. B{12) 
(1. 8 J, while it is redundant in 4bqf4 d- 2), ****> Q, - W) 

* - 

pla whik, it i. wrongly U 8 ed in ***** ****** 0- 3)- Other rmstakes and 
poin r dout^he^ 
content, o the uum a e aa the ^ ^ MS foe8 

aa e ^ ,. 

------- HM&, W.C./1908'^fl; ^"48 aod M ^, VA XXXIX, p. 189. 

Above, VoL IV, pp,2fi. 


is not very clear, the inscription being broken at the corner. It appears, howeve.r, that the 
Mahatara Jentaka, having seen the approach of the messengers of Yama entered fire (?) or com- 
mitted suicide at the holy place of Debuvaka. The record ends with the date 703 Katika 
(Saittika) di (?)-. Evidently the year belongs to the Malava-Vikrama era and corresponds to 
646 AXX 

As regards the personages mentioned in the inscription it would appear that SUaditya was a 
scion of the Guhila family of Mewar. This inference is supported by the documents which have 
already been published e.g., the Itapura 1 inscription of Saktikumara, the inscription of ChitSr,* 
dated V. S. 1331, the Mt. ibu 3 inscription of Samarasiiiiha. As has been pointed out by 
Prof. D. R. Bhandarkar, 4 the name Sa in the Itapura inscription stands for Slladitya who was 
succeeded by Aparajita 5 whose inscription, dated V. S. 718 (A. C, 661), has been alluded to above. 
Nothing of importance is recorded about the Mahatara Jentaka. 

Vatanagara of the inscription is evidently the same as Vata 8 (Va^apura) which has been iden- 
tified with Vasantaga<Jh 7 in Sirohl State and is about 16 miles from SamSlI, where the inscrip- 
tion was found, 

This inscription is of special interest, as it enables us to rectify a mistake made in connection 
with the pedigree oi Goha. Col. Tod supposed that Goha (Guhila, Guhadatta, GuhSditya, etc., 
the founder of the Guhila family of Mewar, to which Slladitya of this inscription belongs) de- 
ssended from the last gfladitya (Siladitya VI) of Valabhipura. 8 The AltaS copper-plata inscrip- 
tion 9 of the last SUaditya of Valabhipura dated in Gupta Sarfivat 447 (A, C, 706-07), would 
show that he was the ruler of the Valabhl kingdom at least up to the date of his inscription, 
t.e., the latter half of the eighth century A. C. 10 As the date of gfliditya of the present inserip* 
tion is Samvat 703 (A. C. 646), that of Goha or Guhila, the fifth 11 predecessor from him, should 
fall in the latter half of the sixth century A. C., if an average reign of twenty years be ae&igned 
to eack of the rulers preceding Sfladitya (of Mewar). Thus there is a difference of about two 
centuries between the reigns of Goha (Guhila) of MewSr and the last 'toditya of Valabhipura. 
In other words, we might say that G6ha (Guhila) had established his rule in Mewlr about two 
centuries prior to the break up of the Valabhl kingdom, Therefore G5ha could not have been 
the descendant of the last Sladitya (giladitya VI) of Valabhipura. 18 

ind. Ant., Vol. xxxix, p. 101, 

* &Mmagar Inscription*, p, 75, v. 18. 

* 2nd. Art., VoL XVI, p. 348, v. 14. 

jp . 180. 

j . . 

*<3f. note 1 above where the Mugs are mentioned m succession 
Above,VoLIX,p. 12. 

VoLltt nn 171 ff T\ m" * ' " 4 ), V L * PP 253-50. 

. . l^u^ 

p. 308). Hence Slliiditya VII ought to be Rlladitra VI TTM.,- '. \ ' P " * n nr ' C ' A " M %y. 
1M No. 4S7, footnote k-Ed.] % [TtU8 * * matter of P ialon & * KWlwrn'a Northern 

P. o^n (W.Orooka'.Bditto,), VoL 

*****. VoL XXXIX, p. 188, Inscription No. IV 
Sec IwL A*.. Vo,. LVJ, pp. J69 74. ( 


vr] 703. 



No- 9.] 


TEXT. 1 


the origtod. tone. 
by "ymboL 

abo the KM, 

o ^ gn^ycd jost below IT . 

q ol < k 
then ttw metre would be 






These plates were sent to the late Dr. D, B. Spobner by Mr. L. B. V. Oobdcn-Bamiitty, LtXS ? 
Political Agent, Orissa Feudatory States, in 1916-18.* A summary of the contents of the inscrip- 
tion they bear, as drawn by the late Eao Bahadur H. Krishna Sastri, was published m the Annual 
Progress Report of the Eastern Circle for that year, 2 

The plates are three in number and are joined together by a copper rtafi? to which, is 
attached a seal (l$"x If) which is ellipsoid in shape and bears the legend Sn-Ra^abMfijadSwisya, 
They are identical in size and measure 7J* by 4J* eaoL The first plate is inscribed on the inner 
side only while tibe remaining two bear inscription on both the faces, There are altogether 
fifty-seven lines of writing on these three plates, which are distributed as follows : the first plate 
has eleven lines, the second, eleven lines on each side; and the third, twelve lines on each side. 
The writing on the whole is neat and clear bu* each line abounds ia mistakes du* both to the 
composer and the engraver. 

The record is written in incorrect Sanskrit, The first eleven lines of it are in verse. They 
contain four stanms of which the first three are already known from the two Biradh plates of the 
same prince. 8 These verses contain an invocation to Siva and the genealogy of the donor, This 
grant mentions two ancestors of Eaijabhanja, namely, SilSbhafija and Satrubhafija, while the 
Bandh grant {B) names only one, i.e., Sateubhanja, his fairer, The object of the imcriptkm is to 
record the grant of the village of Vabirava<3,l, which stood on the banks of the Mahfinadl and 
was included in Dakshi^apali and the Khinjali-wa^ato, to the god VijaSsara (VijaySiSvara), by 
MahadeviVijya'(Vidya) who was the daughter of the illustrious Kanaka Niy&tnama* The god 
Vijaesara is evidently a !$iw~Unga and the donor, the wife of Eaoabhafija himself. The document 
describes Baqatktaiija as a devout worshipper of Vfeh$u, the titoka of the spotless Bktfija race 
and master of both the Khifijalis, who had obtained the five great 'Mctea* whoae feet were 
worshipped by tho Mabasamantas and who had obtained the blessing of the goddess Stem- 

Mahanadi is evidently the well-known river of that name in Orissa. Ehifijali in mentioned 
in several Bhanja grants which have already been published. I am unable to identify the village 

The date of the inscription is, apparently, regular and is given in a half chronogram as Indu- 
wk-wianti varise (^Indu-vafowmiati-'varshS).* Ordinarily this expression would denote the year 
2011 of -some era but the Baudh plates (B) which are written in the same script as this inscrip- 
tion would show that it stands for 22, vaJc being taken in the sense of L 4 

I edit the inscription from the original plates which were kindly placed at my clkposal by 
Sir Edward Gait, I.C.S., 1LCJ.E., the then Lieutenant-Governor of BihSr and Orissa. 

*JmMii Mepart of the Archwlogiwl Survey of India, -Maitern Gwek, imW, p. -7 t 
*?, 4, para. 6, 
51 Abo, Volume Xll, pp. 323-28. 

* [But mk (ac&) does not mean 4 one ' though it might itand for * four ' as it is auppotad to hire four 
tagea, namely Para, Pa^antf, Modhyama and FeribfaK. The reading, however, is not certain Ed.] 




[ Metres : Vv. 1-3, VasantatilakS ; v. 4, 8M&amJuWta ; TV. 5-19, Amslttnibh ; and v, 


First Plate. 

i [ I* ] Sarfihara-kala-hutabhug-vikaiila-gliora-saiiibliranta-kinka- 

2 ra-kn{k r i)tanta-[mtanta * >bhiunarfx [I*] bkinn-lndhak-isuia-maha-galian-atpatra* | 

toil* hhl?.(l)htti)ravatii Ha- 
8 ra-vapuL r* ] bhaA(blia)Yata& prapStuh* || [ 1* ] 


4 ha^-supraarita-pratapSC t I* ] Bhanja^N^ 


5 yW-t,ra bhuva(vi) bhuWri-sahasra-sat * ]kkya[ h ] I [ I 2 * ] 

8 akala-bhu(bhd)ta[ la * >pa- 

6 la-maulKl^mal-archohhit-a^li-jngalS* valavaA'-njipo-bhu^uJt I 

7 SiiabhaaiadSvaLfc*] pravakrata'-paurusha-rataii-cbakra-niidarit-an- 



[ 4* ] AnyS-nya-mada- 




15 samanandita-paura-jana-ma(a)nasali firimad-Bliafija-bhii(bhu)patili purMDhptipura* 


16 mna[ h* ] || Saf^ajrad-amala-dh.avala-kara-'ya^alj.-pal^la-dhavalita-dig-'va- 

17 dano(nah) I 1 I(A)nayarata-pravpt[ t*]a-samnama 2 -dan-a[ na * ]nclita-salcala-jan5(nati) I 1 

18 A(A)$daja-van (m)Aa-prabliavah Parama-vaist^ava(v5) mata-pitri-p5da(d-a)nu- 

19 dhyata[ h* ] Bkfij4mala-kula-tilaka Ubhaya-Khiajal-a(ly-a)dhipati[ Ij * ] sama- 


20 pancha-maha-Savda(bd6) ma(ma)haaamanta-vandita-[charatiah*] StarabhMvarI*lav 


21 da[ h* ] | l Eai]iaka4ri-Ra!?abhafijadeva[ t* ] kufeB [I*] Ihaiva Khifijali-majgi<Jale 

22 bhavishyad-raja-raja(a)Mk4ntetanga a -lmmaxa(ra)m 

Second Plate : Second Side. 

23 9a-pradhana[ n * ] anya[ m ]i-cha da^^apa^ika-cha^a-bhS^a 4 -vallabha-jStliiil^ 11 ya* 

24 tharbi 7 manayati vaidhayati 8 samadisayati(Safi) ch-Snyat !| 9 sarvvataf ^ * ) 

25 smakaA I Viditamastu bhavatat 10 Dakhi(kshi)ija^a(p8)U.prativa(ba)ddlia 

i*] i 6 

27 Bidhya upanidh!.saliitaih(tali) mata-pitrS^yatma-jaia ia -pu?y-ibhivriddhay 8 

28 salla-dlarali^pura^aigp vidhini | 

29 [P 

30 datva vidki-yidhanena sa^dhgya-tamm^MSsanarM pratipMitJ-yaA || 


Bead 'ja 

6 Punctuation superfluous, 


11 Bead ma(d-|^^r^wanaldia 

u Bead *Vidyimahad$vyd. 

3 Bead Fya^ttt%a, 

17 w Is written below the Mae. 

19 The ma uj superfluous. 










r 34 






81 parya-kulavatarSga ya(y.a)vad-V 1 sarwa-vachan&na yatha dharma(ma)[|*] 
prarShaiMi ||* sa(yS) 

32 san6(tfl)na pratmi(taa5)Bi sahasrBga virShasi [I*] 6va[rfi*] vtt(bit)ddhpiv5) pai- 
arddhafi-cha parat5 

83 vaJ&^ft v at&r5i3&(-A)py^6md-antai5r^ nakenaohi 

smalp-lpi 3 

Third Plate : First Side. 

84 va(b&)dha kara^yS | tathi eh*att(ch-5)lrtatii dlamma-fitatrfelni [f] Pb51a-kiBlii. 

[A] mahlDit*] dadya[t*]-8a- 

88 viia(ja)iH Ba8ya-m5dinI[A*](4alinWi) I r&va[t*] 8u(8u)tyakrit-al5ka taTO|>] svargga 8 
mahlyatfi I [I 5*] 

86 Vsaa-vta-asmayOji' vadanti rishi" -d6Vatat[l*] blm(bl l u)mi.l 1 artr&, 

cha a- 

87 h5 m& hara mi hara , [16*] Tath-appu pattanh fiakra 

viaa[r*]ppti i ; 

88 Svarh bhu(bhfi)mi- krita* dfiaa* swyafayS) saayS ptarShala | [I 7*] 


89 & Vi8hou[r*].Vr(Bm)h S5m(m aa-tu bhaa" 

40 bllandranti" bhu(bhtl)mida[m*] I [I 8*] 

41 nti pitamaha(haV) I Bhu(Bhfl) 

ti | [I 9*3 Ewahu-" 

aphalft-8a*k& ya pwadatSshu 


44 m-va yd hared*va(rete va)&undliaram | a 

pitpbM[s*]salia pachyatS | [I 12*J Hiraijya 

45 mekaza gamekam(kam) bhn(bhu)mim 1 

kam=ayati yavad=abhuti(bhuta)- 

Third Plate : Second Side. 

46 samplavahCvaiii} | [I 13*] BJm(Bhu)mi[in*] ya^ pratigjih^M yach(A)olia bin- 

(bht)mi[ia*] prayachchliati I ulxhaii tau 

47 niyatau* s[v*>rgga-gammau | [| 14*] HaratS hirayat* bhLU(bha)-mi[rtx > l< ] 

| sa va(ba)- 

48 ddh6 v&raj?ait pi4biEfl*]*tirya[g*>y6nI(ni)8liu jyatS |[| 15*] MS par- 
thivat(va) kadachi[d* dhi*] vra(bra)kmaavaiii mana* 

4 8adapi(sa api) | axhgS padham 8 *abhaisva(sha)3yaiii tat 
l[| 16*] l(Na) vislia[ih*] visham-ity-a- 

50 htt[V*] vra(bra)lnasvaih vis3xa[ifi*] uohyatS ] yislmm@kilmi5(niiijbi) ianti 
9Ta(bra)hmasvarii putra-pautri(tia)ka[ih*] | [| 17*] 

8K iw-56v^cMoht)w 

sliu I5kshu kalji pumili(n} 

52 jaiamSjvaramisliyati 1 I [I 18*] V]apya-sahasr&gi* 

58 chA I gavaxorkoti-pradattena 7 bbu(bb,t)mi-hiartta na iy^dhyatl 1 i fl 19*1 
ltd kamala-dal-a- L J 

54 mvu<bu)-vi[ih*]4a-iaU[ih*] Artyam^nucliintya 

55, vndait" na H piuusliailL paraki(ki)tta(rttii)yd villjpyftft*] I [| 30*1 Viiaya^ 



1 Bewl ttomirm 

8 Itend 

* { See note 4, p. 100 abore~B&3 
(Powubfy meant for 




The inscription edited below is incised on, two thick plates of copper which weigh 
15 Ibs, 7 ot. and now belong to Mr. X J, Gardar of Nepean Sea Road, Bombay, who purchased 
them at some place in Central India, and lent to me in November, 1920, JOE publication. 
There are two holes in each of these plates through which they appear to hare been oace tied 
together by means of two ringb like many of the Valabhi plates which have now been published. 
There is o al attached to them but a kneeling figure of Garufa, holding a snake in 
each hand, if incised at the proper right corner of the second plate, as is seen in the Dh^ram- 
purl plates of VakpatirSja ol V.S. 1031, the Ujjain plates 8 of Bhojadeva of V.S. 1^78 and the 
Mandhati plates 4 of Jayasirhha I of V,S. 1112. The plates measure IbfJ by 8* each and are 
incised on one side only. In all, there are twenty-nine lines of writing on them, seventeen being 
incised oa the first plate and twelve on the second. The average height of letters is f . 

The I*nguag of the inscription is Sanskrit. With the exception of two verses at the begin- 
ning, two in the middle and jive imprecatory stanzas at the end, the record is written in prose. 
It referu itself to the reign of the PawmMat^ the 

illustrious Narawrxnadlfra, who meditated on the feet of the P. M. P., the illustrious 
UdaySdityaddva, who meditated on the feet of the P. M. P., the illustrious Bhojadgva, who 
meditated on the feet of the P. M. P., SindhurajadSva. 

The object of the charter is to register the grant of certain pieces of land given on different 
occasions to a Brlhma^a named DvivSda Is^a)dhara, son of Narayaija of the Katyayana- 
00to and MftdhywaiiM^aM. The gift-land consisted of, twenty MM*** given by the 
king NaravarmadSva himself on the 12th day of the bright haH of Magha in the year 
1167 (-Thursday, the 3rd February, 1110 AJX) when this grant was issued. The charter also 
refers to a previous grant of twenty haks of tond, out of which ten Uhs were given by the 
MMmanluka Eljadlva oa the 16th day of the bright half of KIrttika the year 
flS4, iTjtato by his daughter4n4aw the illustrious ^^^^^^J^ 
and six tabt by the king himself, on the 16th day of the bnght half of * tad* mto 

t Surf. A**., Vol. VI, pp. 

^ Above, ?oL XU, pp. *8 . , . _ N P 1 

[PtObubly mM b to be *ta to ^ se ^^^ ^^g to 8wflmm KM's Mto 

* [Th0 coiwot wading seems to be U ^ h ^^A.J). U02,i.e,twa **y* 
our** te w^m* *kto* took place on tue iKai^o 

thte date glwtt ia the present grntr-H. P. OJ 
Above, Vol. I, pp. 354 & 


have given ite name to the ma%4ala, I am unable to identify either Kadambapadraka or 
Mandarabt. The granfr was issued under the sign maxnlal of the MaJwfaraja Naravarmad^va and 
the Dutaka of the charter was fhakkura Ke^ava. 

TEXT. 1 

[Metres :~*Yv. 1, 2, I and 5, Anushjjubh ; Vv; 3 and 7, VasantatUaki ; V, 6, Indravajra ; 
V. 8, Salini ; V. 9, Puahpitagra.] 

JWrrt Plate. 

1 Oih s svasti Jl Sri[r*]=jayo=bhyudaya4==cha || Jayati [Vy6]3ak565sau ya& sargglya vi 

(bi)bharttri(rtti) tarn aindavirii foaaa l$khaiii , jagad-vlji%a sa kjitiih a || [1 1|*] 

2 Tanvantu va^t Smar-arate^ kalyg^m^aniteih j^alji I kalp-anta-$amay-lidSta^ta4id- 

valaya-pimgalah || [2||*] Paramabhadvfi(ttil)raka-MaharS]I- 

3 dhkaja-ParaineSvara4ri-SindhiirfiJadSva-va(pa)danud^^ 


4 taTafPaJrajnabhattaraka-MaharajadMraja-Paramefivara^ri-^ 


5 ra^efi 

pratij agaranake 

6 mana-Kadamva(nflba)padraka-griini 


7 fiiayaty=a8tu vah eaiiividitaik || yathi Srimd-Dhlr-lTaathitdr^imibhi^ 

charachera^gilruifi bhagavantarii Bhavanipatiiii BamabhyEt^J 

8 ,r%^ar^A] dp^tvS I Tatha M I Vit-ftbhra^ibhraB)tain4dftib 

9 ^-agra-j^la-vindu-sama narai^aih dhaxmali sakha param=ah6 paf^lCkm-ytaS II [3 It 111 ! 

Bhramat-8azhfia*a*oha^ fay&ih [ |* ] 

10 prapya ye na dadusteshaih pafichattapalt paraih phakrii || [4f] It* 

11 rwava.kBhiti-samakalaih yavatparaya bha[kty&] 

12 ^ilVmiti^ti^^^ 

--^ ; 

vati- P arvva.da^ 

13 a. 

nsan(mri6an)-madhyakena bhu-iuvartta?ia^ith6ati,pratya | f Bhfi 

From tihe original platea and impresflions. " ....... - --^^^m^^^*^^.. , , , WWWMBMW 

1 Expressed by a symbol. 
* Read jagad-mj-alilcur-akritim. 
4 Bead -samay-dddama-. 
1 Bead 

c Bead -dttard?^. 
1 Dcwfa unnecesBaiy. 
8 Dtwfa unneceflgary. 

r. P. OJ 










15 6yS[xb] sva-bhukto" kasyitanx vaddliapita(?)-bhu-lila-da4akati^bhi)rTva 1 Matamaij.- 

<JalIka-rI-Rajadeva-vadhu-&rI-Mah,advy& pu[r]wa-kalpe ta(da)- J 

16 tvan(tta) bhu-hala-chatuali$ayaiB I Tatha asmabhiHSkSniwbasbty-adMka-fekt- 

i(ai)k&da6aka-Bamvatflar Paiuha-iudi- 

17 paifaoliada6yft[ji] Bftitijatft-bhataraprana-parwaiji kasyitatvaiii 1 (?) blm-halB-slia$ 

[&*] I Evam yatblyathaih bM-hala-vi[ia*]fe- |* 

Second Plate. 

18 tik 8a-flIml-tp)Qia-[yii]ti-g6oliaia-paryalQtS 


19 8ava(mat4)-pitr5rafcmana-obA pu? 

kataya pradatta [ I* ] T6(Ta)n-ma1;va tan-ni- 

20 vaM-pa^ldla-jaMpadair^thadS^ 

vana-vidhSyair-bku(bha)tTa 8arwam=amushmS(8hmai) aamupa- 

21 nSfeavyaih I $am&nyarii oh=aitat=pu9ya-phalam vu(bu)ddliva uaifrtoifrat i *Bj[i 

api bUvi-b]i5lrtpbHr^iaat-p[r*]adatta-dlia[r*]inm-aday6^^ I * 

22 alanlyai-soha I Uktufc oha I Va(. 

yaaya yaaya yada bhu(bM)mis=<tasya tasya tada phala[ih] I [ l ||*J 

n-a , , ,. . . 

23 dattani putS natSudrair^danani dharmm-artha-yafcskariM I Birmalya-vaiLti-pratunaiii 

tini kfl nama sadhu^t punar=adadlta I [ I 6f] Asma- 

24 t-kula-k[r*]ataamidarain.udaliaradbMr=aiiya==cha danam4dam=abhyairamodai^am 

Laksh{m*]yatadid-valaya-vudvuda(budbuda)-ch8iiiclialaya danaA phal&m para- 



p [ |7||*] Sama^StattanhW^vna , pavi^p Bfiy5 

yaohatS Saptajmabhads* I te^many-SyaA dharma-sgtur^pa^M kale kalS 




Orh Hail ! (May 

for the sake of the creation, hold* on 
the shoot from the seed of the 
of the god of love (i.e., Siva) 

* Daly one 

* Bead 



[' VOL. XX. 

of the end of the world, grant you prosperity incessantly (2).' The 

dhraja-Parammarafhe illustrious Naravarmadeva, who meditated on the feet of theT" 
the Jlustnous Udayfidityadiva, who meditated on the feet of the P. 
SondhurtjadSva, being in good health, informa the various officers, Brahmanas and others 

wS^rsscsrs^ KJtr p - to ' ta wuoi * 

of Maudaraka of tlie Upgndrapura-ma^^a. Let it 
aiding at Dhara, having bathed and worshipped Bhagavan (iSwa) the rule f th 
brd of Bta ^f ^d having perceived the worthiness of the world-^s it ia niAVM m 


on the 16th day of the bright hTo, Pausha 

n^sures of land, in ite regul ar ' 

age, with rights of .inin/gold, 

Hicome H given for the increase of the *erit and toe of 

mother, by means of a (c^-plate after 

aU d^, t^ne^, ti^riiS. * 

townsmen inhabiting the place! are to 

^ five imprecatory verses.) The 






SAKA 1109. 


These two records are engraved on a stone tablet lying in front of the temple of Isvara at 
Benachamatti in the Gajndraga<J State which is included in the Ron taluk of the Dhajrwar dis- 
trict. They are edited here for the first time from the estampages secured by me under the 
orders of the Government Epigraphist for India in the year 1927-28. a The first inscription covers 
an area of 2' 9" by 2' 3$*, the size of each letter being about \* in height. The area occupied 
by the second inscription is 2' 3$* by 6$* and the size of each letter is roughly i". The latter is 
the continuation of the former. I am calling them A and B respectively for the salce of con- 
venience. They are in a fairly good state of preservation excepting that some letters of B are 
loot at the right corner of the lower edge where the stone is broken. 

Both the inscriptions are Karma<Ja records of the twelfth century of the Chrisj/ian era, 
In A the long t is distinguished from the short bne by au inside coil at the top as in pathifya (L 1), 
Gliamdalad&oi (1. 19), efc. ; the u-sign at times has a short downward: bend by the side of the letter 
with which it is connected as, for example, in CMvuyfc (L 10), ^ 0- n ), * '> thewdgniB 
represented, in some cases, by a horizontal line at the bottom of the letter concerned with a curve 
on the left side and, in others, by a cursive upward stroke shooting from the bottom to the right 
end, as in Mandara-dhavryyarh (1. 18), sainyam (1. 26) ; the letters m, y and v have very often been 
represented by their special cursive forms as in baliyim (1. 6), "y-aliyam (L 7), and dio- 
AnftMtamuma* (1. 37) respectively ; the mwnSra is written by the side of the letter connected 
therewith in four places, i.e., in yeniM (L 19), ****#* 0- 29), JMP*"""* 0- 37) 
and jMUfry. (L 42). The Orthography is generally free from errors It may "** 
in A the engraver has fiUed up the space left at the end of hnesS 6, 10, 12, 13 20 24^ 35, 3 
41 46 49 51 and 52 by the addition of a superfluous mark resembling the English letter 8 la 
BthecoLnant la is, in several places, wrongly used for Ja, as in p> (U. 3, 5 and 6) t 
Q 5) etc and the letter te in NShilana teradi (1.4) is written likeje. 

" Exciting thefirst verse which i* in Sanskrit, A is written in Kannada 
with ^et 11. 8, 10, 31, 32, 36-38 and 44-54. B is also composed in Kannada 

oftheSinda family whose ped^ree given in hnes 8-29. 1 * 

brother^-namely Aohara^a, ^.^ "Z 

H&vu*4 was a powerful warnor and that to ^charasa was 

thoccclof thoSinaal (U) by o_ueeu 

cammcuuaa. Of Ch&vu*4a it is recorded that 
huge army, the Sinda prince destroyed its general 
his elephants in large numbers. Again when tt 
war against Chavunda with a view to confer him 
eway for life in the forest. When d. 
Erarrtbarage (which is ooi 
MathurS and Ujjayinl), the 

OIUflhing defeat and had to flee 
cr g ^ ^ ^ ^ 

celestial Amaravati, AyMhyi, 



temple of Telligiivara in the south-east quarter of that town and made certain gifts to it 
after laving the feet of Goamdramaiili-vratin of the Lakuja sect, the Scharya of 
Simh&vara-matha, 1 on the day specified in 11. 4647 during the reign of the Kajachurya 
king Trlbhuvanamalla Bijjanadeva (11. 44-45). Lines 38-44 give the genealogy of the 
Icharya Chamdramauli-vratin as follows : Vigrahedvara-vratta, his disciple Yogedvara- 
yati and his disciple Chamdramauli-yati. 

Inscription B introduces, after prayer to the god TeHigifoara, mentioned above, Vlra- 
Bijja^andVIra-VikramaassonsofCaittvu^abySrldBTlanddworibeBthe elder of the 
two, namely Vira-BijjaJa, as a great devotee of Siva like Nambi* and Ohila' and a scholar 
like Bana (U. 1-4). His wife was Tripuradivl (1. 5). ffis brother Vikrama was a munificent 
donor and an invincible warrior looking majestic as if he was a Chakraoartin (11. 6-9), In lines 
10-12, the two brothers are mentioned with the usual titles, Mahama^aHvara S&hastotuihqa 
etc., as ruling over Kisukadu-70, BIgadage-70, KeJairadi-300, Nareyatfcgal-12 and 
Karividi-3[0]. At the request of -the KffyTelligas and a certain MwfaJaya-Siluini they 
are stated to have granted some land to the temple of TelUgitirara (U 13 l^ An f K 
date specified in lines 12 and 13. 

The details of the date given in A are: Saka 1088, Vyaya, Fushya amavftsva 
Monday, Uttarfiyana-saihkramti and vyatlpata. They are not quite regular Thl 
Pushya amavasya ended on Sunday at -95 and the Makara (UttarSyanaJ-samkrtoti had 
occurred on Margatosha ba. 30, Saturday (24^ December). The date intended probably 

* *"^ A ' D ' " 67 whioh ^^ " 

The details of the date given in inscription B are :~Saka 1109, the ttyclio y 
............. . chaturdaa, Monday, Saifakrarfxtl. According to Swamikannu Pillai' 

**. dttori* combined with a samkramti did not faU on Monday in an y Tthe 
Plavan^a. But, for Chaitra ^u. 14 which was a day of Mesha-san^ 

sr^Mt^r^ 87 ^^^ *&- 


, p. 109 ad XIX, p. 227 ' ' 2M " 75 <W - fldlted * '** ^- Vol. IX, p. 96) 


who has written an excellent note on the Siuda chiefs in this journal^ evidently followed Meet 
in this respect; but, while editing the Sfi^i inscription of the Kajachtuya king Sainka- 
madSva, he felt the moongruity of this interpretation and remarked " it seem* to confuse 
ichugi*8 brother SiAgl I with the former's eon Siftghi II*' 2 Since the Eon record edited by 
the sne scholar state* elearly that Icharasa II was the son of Singa, a brother of 
JLohugi I he hai recognised this difference as being only a variant version of the pedigree 
recorded in the Sfl^i inscription mentioned above. But it may be remarked that all the 
epigraphs* if understood properly with the aid of A, yield the same genealogy. The verse in 
praise of Ichugi II in A runs ae follows : 

aiiaiv-aiHijiitan-avazu-khyatam irl-Simha-ja- 

ciuHidan- atata-tGjaiii pratapaditndf AcharaBain (11. 13-H) 

meaning that bis (i.e., Bammarasa's) brother was the powerful Acharasa who was the BOB 
of Siihha, Thi statement is fully borne out by the .relevant portion in the &a<Ji inscription, 
0**.,* DittofffwtiidWiIli A^tywjara^an^^^an-JfcAw^maridaile^aram (L 24), i.e., among them (aZK) 
Sirfigarasa'a mn wip Aehugiraan4ale6vaia. As Acharasa II ia thus described in.nnmistrftable 
tenon to be the m of SiAha without introducing any prince of the latter name before, excepting 
Idbmgi (!)* brother SiAga, there is no other alternative but to suppose that he was the aon of 
thii SiAga ftnd consequently a cousin of Bammarasa L The expression ' atawfammaiht ' must, 
thrd!ote be taken to moan his brother, t'.e., the brother of ichugi I 

W<l to0W from inscriptions at Arasibl<Ji 4 and Ka^geri* that Chavu<Ja had married three 
qiieem, namdiy, DImaladivi, Lakslimadevl and Si^iyftdevl, of whom the last two were the 
daughters of the Kajachurya King Bijjala. He begot on Demaladovi, Achugi III and 
Ptwm&41IIl and on SiriyldM, Ylra-ViJja^a and Vlra-Vikraxna, the donors of inscrip- 
tion B. Vlra-Vijja^s queea was TripurftdivS. The portion containing the name of 

iuim'ii wife is unfortunately broken off. 

The Stoda W^f who played w important part in the mediaeval history ol Kaw^ft ta* 

n their poUtical oareer as feudatories of the Western Chajukyas of Kalya^i ;during the last 
quarter of the llth century A, D. Thefirst pjmce o the family was Achugi* who ia de^nbed 
in the Sd4i and Ni^gundi* imoriptious with^the significant epithet " MNv^Ua. thereby 

indicating that with him came into being the rule of the Sinda princes of 

' - of 

From the fact that he is eactoUedas Viteaw^aml^id*^'' (a 
VikraraMityaVI)andthAtMssoii3MmEarasawa8,accordingtoa n epigraph at Savifc rutog 

liuka4u another provinces in the Chi|ukya Vikrama year 7 (A D. 1083 )J h l^^ 
family m a ruling power may be placed in or about JLD. 107ft, the yeax <* Vikramatoyas 
aZLTto theThLe. It I before not possible that ^ **-"7^ 
diva of a M4gundi inscription who was governing Kisuka4u-70 m A. D. .^J^J 
vanaikamalJsva, could be identical with the Sind* prince Sunga , I m *g^ '""* 
by Meet- and still accepted by Dr. Barnett in his note referred to abov. There ^^ 
J .how that Ichugi's brother Shhga ruled at all whereas it can be definitely inferred from 

"" "" 


inscription A that Bammarasa, the son and successor of Ichugi I was succeeded by Ichugi II, 
the son of Simha to whom there is only a passing reference. 1 Bammarasa had, according 
to the Pattadakal record, won the favour of the reigning sovereign, i.e., Vikramaditya VI 
and received from him a position of honour and rank in the State. His territory comprised 
Kisukadu-70 and Narayarhgal-12 .* He appears to have died without issue as, other- 
wise, the Sinda throne would not have passed to the descendants of his uncle Sim#a. From 
an inscription at Arasibidi 3 which states that MaMma%$alP$var(i [Ava]rarasa was 
administering under Vikramaditya VI, Kisukadu-70 and Karividi-30 in A.D. 1087, it maybe 
surmised that at the time of Bammarasa's death, Ichugi II was either a minor or not powerful 
enough to assert the rights of his family. Subsequently, however, he appears to have acquired 
possession of his hereditary provinces through the favour of Vikramaditya, which, thereafter > 
continued in his line till the end. Only three dates*, MB., 1113-14, 1121-22 and 1125-26 are known 
for Ichugi II who defeated, for his master Vikramaditya VI, the Pandya, Hoyaaja and 
other rebels. Thus it may be stated that the three chiefs from Ichugi I to Ichugi II wore the 
feudatories of the Western Chajukya emperor Vikramaditya VI and took a prominent part in 
the conquests of their overlord. 

After Ichugi II, the two brothers Permadi" and Chayunda II held the Sinda territory as 
subordinates of Penna-Jagadekamalla and Trailokyamalla Taila III, respectively. 
It was during the latter's reign that the Chajukya dominions were usurped by Kajachurya 
Bi]ja}a who is described in A as having dragged by force the lady of the ChSjukya sovereignty. 
J-ennadi is stated in his inscriptions to have vanquished KulasSkhara, besieged and 
decap^ted Ghatta pursued Jayakesi and seized the royal power of Hoysaja Vishnuvard- 
dhana. The Eon inscription adds that he captured the Hoysaja king's elephants as well aa 
alv^rZ^T ^^P^*^^ (A), however, the defeat of the Hoysaja king's 
army and the capture of his elephants are attributed to Chavunda II for whom we hava 

, med Kamad5 - These eventB must be different from 

than of his ddL brother Permadi It'h ,- J ? aO i* **POW7 of Chavun^a II 

No Sfi f tt, x. n rr 

I* 1? f ^ Bombay Kamatok Oolleotioa f or 1928-29. 

p tofi^K 1 ^* 8 . 01 *" B ' K " Ue0 ^ ' M. 




See also J^ K<n . ^Jj * + - 


though it waH well established by then, had begun to recognise it by A. D. 1167, as is evident 
from the preamble to the grant portion of inscription A. It appears that he was holding the 
reins of government in conjunction with his sons Achugi and Permadi in A. D. 1163 when 
the Paf^adakal inscription was engraved. It is not known under what circumstances the 
Sinda chiefdom pasaod to the sons of Siriyadevi after the death of ChSvunda II. 

Chtivunda'B rule must have ended in A. D. 1169-70, for we find his sons Vira-Bijjana 
and VIra- Vikrama ruling over Kisukadu-70, Bagadage-70, and KeJavadi-300 in A. D. 1170 
as recorded in the Aihoje inscription 1 dated in Virodhin, corresponding to the 94th year -of the 
ChUjukya Vikrama era, whereas an epigraph from Hiremannur' bearing the date Saka 1091 
(A.D. 1189) introduces Chavunda as a donor of some gift. Further the Harti inscription 8 of 
Vlra-Bijjana dated in the cyclic year Vijaya falling in his 7th year fixes the date of his acces- 
sion Bomntinw in VirOdhin. Vlra-Bijjana and Vira-Vikrama appear to have ruled conjointly 
a is shown by the preamble to inscription B which states that both the princes web ruling 
together from their capital at Erarhbarage. This ia corroborated by other inscriptions also.* 
There arc, however, 'a few epigraphs 5 which were issued by the two brothers independently of 
each other. But this does not vitiate the above conclusion inasmuch as joint rulers could 
make donations separately as well. There are reasons to hold that the two princes were very 
young whim thoy were Invested with power. Two inscriptions at Nidgundi* with datea 
in flaka 1094 (A. IX 1172) and Saka 1096 (A. D. 1174) style them as toward and introduce 
patfamnhadtol RiriyadSvt as making some gifts in conjunction with her two children. TMs 
swmR to indicate that their mother Siriyadevi was actually governing the Sinda territory as 
*ogent during their minority.' That they were children then, as said above, is rendered quite 
probablw by a record' of A. D. 1220 in which year Vikramaditya was still holding the Sinda 
dominion! undw the Ysdava Sirhganadeva, after a rule of not less than fifty years. 

It is significant to noto that inscription B- does not mention any overlord but proceeds 
to dMMcibo the two brothers straightaway as if they were independent rulers. After the Kaja- 
churya usurpation which lasted for twenty yeara, the Sindas retransferred their O*"" *> 
the Chaiukyw under SSmSsvara IV, who revived his ancestral sovereignty; in A. D, .1185 
Sometime tftar this date, the Chajukya territory appears to have agam become a 
conntont attack* of the Yadavas of Devagiri on the north and the 
rnudi. <n,thouth. During this period of turmoil, the Sinda 
independence. This is indicated by the expresmon 


Oho powerful Vikrama was then the fit person to bear the title of OWrawrfw. But this 


a Ko. 4 of tho Bombay Kfttnatak collection for 1927-23. 

No* -57 of I925-2T of the flam collection. 

*/6^ No- 221 of 1926-27. 

Eon Uttd Hsfoti inonption mentioned above. 

^ No*, 208 and 205 of 1920-27 of the Bombay Kamatak ^^' 


[ Vol. XX. 

itself dated in A. D. 1192 and by the statements contained in his Annigere inscription. 11 of A. D. 
1202 representing Bhillama as having been killed in the fight. The Harihar inscription of 
Ms son Narasimha II adds to his father's conquests the capture of all the stronghold* 
between Soratik, Eraihbarage, Kurugod, Gutti, BeJJittage, etc.* From this it ia evident tha* 
Vrra-Balla}a had successfully wrested from the Yadava Mng some portion of the territory 
whieh the latter had taken from Somesvara IV, subjugated the Sindas of Erambarage and 
made them pay homage to his banner. The Yadavas, however, were not keeping quiet all tfcig 
while. They were biding time to reclaim tne lost country. Jaitugi's son SimganadSva who 

carried his conquests far and wide led an expedition against the Hoysajas during the last days 
of Vira-BallaJa and snatched back from him the portion of land lying to the south of the Krishna 
and Malaprabha and even extended his arms farther south as is proved by his inscription at 
Bajagamve' in Mysore, dated in A. D. 1215. This event must have taken place in or about A D 
1210 for, an epigraph at Doni states that the sixteenth year of SinganadSva's entry into that 
tract correaponded to the cyclic year Vijaya (A. D. 1226). This statement proves that the Yada- 
vas were once again k possession of the territory under contest which must have included Kxsu- 
kadu-70 of the Sindas. That the Sinda chiefs became their subordinates and continued to admow- 
ledge their suzerainty till the end is clear from a stone record at Kajakappanagudda? m 
, ^ J*""*% *& u - feudatory of SimgannadSva in the kttr'a 2l 
r^yearfalhngu, V^ama, i*. A. D. 1220. Nine years later, we find Mahipradhln* 
Vasudeva-Nayakaruunguader the orders of Simhana, Erambarage "which had cauaed itoe! 


The following places and subdivisions are mentioned in the two records : the celestial 
Amaravafct, AySdhy*. Madhure, UjjavinI, Bratfcbarapuraiii, Kallton, Kirakl4u-70, 
Bifafl***- 70 ' itivft$i-300, NaryaihgttM2 and Karivi4i-30. Of these KalMru is 
the modern village of that name near MushlgSri in the Bon taluk of the Dharwar district. 

/\ v4.iiV<iu-70 and KMividi-30 see Fleet's exhaustive note in Indian 

\/n "-* **>> ** *"- m -w * K 

vai 1 XX& PP 259 St. BlgaiJnf-7Q comprised a portion of the modem Bftgalkot taluk in 
Z" Biiapir district with B%4af, M., B&galkot as its chief town. KeJavadWOO 
derived ito name fromite chief place Kelavadi which is at present a small village in the Badami 
lluk of the Bij&pur dbtriot, N*r*y*rfa*l-12 was a small circle of villages with its headquarters 
"jj^^y^rtjgul^.,,., the modern Narfl . in the Bon taluk of the Dharwar district. The 
remaining pUwen *r too well known to require any remarks. 


NimM .t,^4^^ I v 

|| [l|h Vri 1| Vilu^t-pSthina-p 



niohoht- tt-arin-eeevan-l vasumatiyol [C*3 

8 gali Klx-kil.viywh-ohaiwaw esann-eeevaai 

1 ^hinubMv.^vay-ivataftv-eih^dade Q ^ ' 

10 mub ** W""** ii.i^| Itn *** ' iliwld '* d(8> ' 

"--* i- *h ^^^ 

an * i 



16 Mrtadevigay*udgha-vikamaiii kM-chara-Mrtti sambhaviBidM kali Permma- 

imhldltara6 manojn-acliBraijani ra^-oddhate-viruddha-nfipalaka-jala-bS- 

17 la^fchw^^ 1 t 12 fl A Permma- 

btapswinijath ' rupa-Manojaifc manSjna-gu^-ga^a-jna- 

18 ktam r5pit^ripa-npp^hpday4ll5pflifi (^Ivurf^a-mairfal^ara negajdarfi ft [13 1|*] 

*M.*y.v*VfrV*M' MM*W*^ J VP** J7 y-j^ -f 

19 {item C&axfcdWadevJHmtan^^ CMvnifuJarfi J 


20 jhanijajji vanadM-pravyita-kirtti samdra-viWrat-kaiSya-pirp*iridtiakara-mri 

ehamdra-didhiti lasad-danadbt budha-biata(S)- 

22 yikramadim tage parakrama-krama-yntam Simd-invay-tobhSdM-chaifjidraman* 

erwatti tad-Kanam maledaram komd=ugra-matta-^- 
28 bha-saiiigliainan=idaiii pi4idam prat&pa-tapanaih C^fivuiiicja-bhiipll^ath \\ [16 1[*] 

V|i H Bhirugalarfi 6ara^-buguvaraili bhayad=u{i|;udan i ikki mlu* 

24 varaifc varavadirfid41a-talake vapparan=aiht=ipyalke pSsi sad-vfcaraaeyde 

komd=eseva misegajiin huri-goiii^a garfMJia p6iii<Jiira* 

25 nian=*aida Siihda-kti}a-i]QLaiii4auano} pa^iy^pp^ g&ifMjarasSr || [I^IPJ Nija* 

cMturbbaJa-garbbadiih bhuja-baJa-prakshSbhadirii Paifoi<lyatt5]I-jay4- 
25 kaniksli0yin=0yd6 vaihdu ka^upiiMaiiii ^Sfe) Chftiniii3i4a' < bhilbhti]aiiak. 

aiiigade gelda sainyaman=adaiii karh^u^udarii bifrtu nirwijayarfi 
27 Kiina-niipaiwrro^dan^varii beiiigottju k&J-va^eyirfi [| [18 1|*] 

28 CteviiiidajQiE^|va}aii-Madte Guttanin^TJjjayanl-puraifn IbruKh-natiidatwniiiide 

Hastinapuram nere ranijisuv-ante sanitatam Simda-Ghavumda- 

29 blifU3lxuJtolnoppaman=S}dud=Eraii^ || [19 1|] D^rakijailigaiirfi [ta 

yadhu]ku]a-harraiiLva-4atariigalira mahldeva-grihariigaliiu .Dhunu- 

30 pati*prablia-T$i4ya-kadamba-g6liadiiii p&vanavat-tapQ-vana-topd-dbau-ttlegatiibcta 

ka^ge-variid=i n^ndb-'l^xadol sale 

SI 4=lraihbar3ptira;rfi || [20||*] * Alii | 


|| [21 f] Mattaiii || Vpi || 

33 k|mtto-pradaha-praba]atar$,*iAaJi*op^ 

mechcM xiiehdhadi || [22 f] Sujaim-stutyaj^ 
35 TOanniW!^(^ 

36 radiih fe^ ba&<^B%aj*v^wftt^JitalaA fea%ip 

MM*didiiMi | (83||*} Va || A*tt Wtiwn^^ 
W frW^Braii^ TtM%I4yaril-Atwc* 

tad^v-ayatanamiuiiaih mi^rida^a sthanadii- 



It P&IM T< 




Y6ge6varayatl sat-pum^yarb. 
[25 |l*] Z mummukhyana 

bhfi-ma&itaiti naisfrtMkr&gra-gagyaia vibu<2ia-Btoma-siira-bliiijaE 

Aiiigaja-stoaja-gaja-vam Ckaitidt'aittat^^yatSmdrarh ||' (8) [26 |j*] 

kalpa-bMja-tatiyarh mfik-bratam stutya-Vayu-|anarii sat- 

gi,tb.bliiryyav5=ambh6dliiyain tfi(tri)-jagi0id-byii- 
pta-yaaaA fiafi-Siiika-ruchiyaiii kij-ma4e rarajiparii vijit-6dyat<Kali 

Vachana || Svasti [|j*J Samasta-bhuvan-SSrayaiii Sn-Pptliti-vallablia ma- 

paramabhattarakam Halacliuriya-kula- 
kadana-prachamdam nam-adi-samasta-pra^asti-saliitam. 
6ri-3rriat-Tribhuvanamalla Bijjanadevara vijaya-rajyam=u- 

li>dttar*ftbhJTtiddM-pKaTi(;r<f^^ " '' saltittanissire 

S(6)aka~varslxa lOSS^neya Byaya-samvatsarada Faeliyad=anafaTasye (S) 



rada uiathad ucharyyar^appa 



Joju gl^adalli vlsav*aidu gaijain mettuvaralli ^sa?vs*a*fo ma^iakke 

Kallifita batteyi^f pa^orafo ijtaifcidssiruva 

ralliy-a4akoy^oiiidu e^isida dhor^galalli i*a*ykav-a4akeyoiiidii teife 

buligarv*vi|/t/ayaiii btaiiKjig^ele nuju he- 
jfixixg niiju tale-voreg=aiy(ai)vattu devara mumda]j=aihgadiy=era4u [| 


1 rtti niti.s(6)ara.iiidHye8edaiii || [3||*] Na&biya teradira Smnarfi 

n^OhUana [tejpadi noh-illada bhaktarft Bftgan-atfite j&^atfi kith 

bahuna Vira-Bijjal-ava[ni] 
5 pajam || [4||*] SalJalita-kirtti ripu-hyit-sellaifc chaushash#--ka.iegalo][u 

ditadim tain ballam Tripurfidivlya vaUabliaii*! VIra~BiJjal-avani 

nathaih || [5f] ........ 

ti-kulam chakravarti-padavi-[pati]y=iiliiin=Itan^nal^8evan=un^I-khyata-ya^am 

Vfra-Vikram-ayani-palaiii || [6i|*] HuHy-erfidan-a^aauvarii phafld-kuja* 

raa ............ 

7 van=oppe mari^vaih jakkuliparfi javanatfi Biohoha|-gali u^t aivfivo 

Vira-Vikrama-I>liilpaiii || [7|f*] Vr(y)itta |J 

podarppam [kam<Ju] simga ............ 

S r=ar^vvelaloilar=ar=ppodarpp-udugar=ar==ant=6di 

ar=mmanam-gi(Jadar^ar=BBarvvasvamam tettu bi* ........... 

9 s(6)rat-yiraTi]a'ama-nppa4y%akke kaiy-anar=Srw || [8||*] Kanda 

vandige fiarai^ene kavaih vibhu ViraTiloram-6rvTl-p51aia [|*] fl 

10 deviya mano-bjini-kala-hamsam || [9||* ] g Svaeti [|[] 

6ri-man(u)-mahama9dale^vaja sahasotturiiga bhuja-baja 

11 ladeva-Vira-Vikramadevarasarum Ki8ukfi4=eppactu 

Kela[va]<Ji-munaru NarayaihgaUu-haiiinoraijLU Karivi<Ji-ma[va] 
IS nija-rajadliamysEiaiiibai^eyobi mildha^ftriikathfi-viii^ 

ire [I*] (6)aka-varshada 1109-neya Plavarfiga-eamvataarada 
13 turddas(6)i Sdmavira samkranti pu?flr<M4lt%*aift 

okkala bi(m)nnapadim ^rimad-anadi-patti3^v=Erarhbu*agoya Telli- 

14 ppatt^n . gena p4e[yo]lu Jagate^varadevara keyitfa batjagalu 

mattaru pannera^umam Mumjaya Sftha^iya bi[nnApadim] 

16 ...... [pa^uvalu gadde ntoro!idiimaib sarwunamasyaifi 

badia-parililram-agi dhara-purvvakram-a[gi] Vira-BijjaladSva Vira- 

Vikramadiva ......... 4 ...... 


Verse 1. Invocation to SaAbhu. 

V. 2. The" ocean, terrific on account of excessive roar, looks fait to the sight with voltt- 
billow inked *tth pearls that are tossed about by th* wtion of Wrtois^ with stou^ 
the dashes of fearful trunks moving to and fro of the big water elephants that ar^ seated, 
e jubbmgs of the feet of crocodiles losing couiage at the incasing tumult caused by the 
rendered heavier by the movements of the tails, of the wallowing j*fcb fishes, 
T. S-Bncircled by the beatit^l ditch, the ocean, Ja^bfidvlpa looks highly chaming ; 
in it the Mount M^ appears very attractive as if he is the best of ail beau^momtam 

M ST ^ , go den mountain is Kuifataja, r^semliKng the lock of hnir of the 
a cha land 

K g an e ,^^^ ^ bom ^ ^ 

Ohdca fangs (M passed aww), th ift^ous 

enemie,, looked majestic seeing ti, braid of hi, of the haa^ d clew 


lady, the land of Kumtala by resorting to strength of arms, after conquering the refractory (c 
so as to be highly praised by the whole circle of Earth. 

V. 6. The son-in-law of the emperor was the well-behaved prince Chavunda of white 
fame, a tough warrior, renowned on earth as a Gandharva of the Kali age. As regards the genea- 
logy of that high-aouled (hero) : 

V. 7. King Achugi's brothers, viz., prince NSka, Siifaga, the chief of kings, the famous 
Dasarasa endowed with valour befitting hi* rank, the valiant Davana, Hng Chavuitfarajfa, a 
handsome lover of victory and prosperity and the virtuous prince Oiava were (powerfvl) like a 
thunderbolt to mountains, the kings of uncomparable prowess. Among them 

V. 8. the brave king Chaunda, born of the Sinda family, ever praiseworthy shines on 
earth with the splendour of fortune and fame unsullied like the nectar-rayed (mow), looting 
and crushing the foes in furious rage when the confederacy of hostile armies met him in fight. 

V. 9. Among them, to Icharasa was born Bammarasa, a moon to increase the ocean, 
the 8mda(ii-.a^.), brilliant with fame, a repository of great pwwess and endeared to victory 

V 6 10 His your ger brother was Acharasa of exceeding splendour who, born of the iUwtn- 
ous Simha and renowned on earth was, on account of his valour, (Known to be) ever engaged in 
killing the hosts of haughty foes. . . 

V.ll. The wile of Icha-bhupa, thus described, was known by (lit. shose with) the name 
Mafcftdlvi and was of noble family, prudent, extremely calm in disposition, kind and possessed 

of goodfortune^ ^ ^ ^ ^^ ^^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 

Perma, famed like a Gandharva, exceedingly brave, pleasing in conduct who rendered the 
Seld* impure with pure and rolling tears proceeding from the eyes of the young mves (lit- 
girls) of the collection of enemy Hngs who rose in battle. 

V. 13. The younger brother of that Perma-bhupa was the renowned chief 
Cupid io to t, possess^ of a number, of extent amities and who was a woe to the 

aon of C*a*dalad*rl, courageous like Mount Ma adjra and 
in pllying with ^ ro^ 6f balls, the heads of the groups of hostile kings, atoned fame glowmg 
Uke 0- ^ when mstnMt a 8 torm to disperse the gathering f 


. When the army of the Hoysa* Mng who had 
him bravely with a united front, prince caxavu^da, 

Ess ssr -r r.. 


ttttSZZ *+-'*- 

(helpk*,) and those that got down on earth from horse 

V.18. Puffedupat 
th, |a V 4y chiottai* 8 torfcca 



[Voi. XX. 

conquered (Aw) army single-handed., Seeing It king Kgxpa threw of? his garment 
and losing (hopes of) victory fled by the forest track turning Ms back. 

Y. 19. Just as Amaravati looked ever beautiful with India v]s*> was bowed to (bu ?A 
AyodhyS with the descendant of Baghu (i.e., Ramachandra), the 
Ujjaywl with Gutia. and Hastinapma witl tie on o* Marut (* 
pura attained much gracefulneea mtl the Sinda 

Erambarapura Aiaea gieiily on the faee. of this eiiarmiag earth vith 
numerous palaces containing group* of maide^ h^ses of god* on earth, i.., 

pMOili * 8 rf Teffigas (ie " aihaen )' endwe<J ' * 

virtues and 

B " * -* 

, and' 



pervading %e three wodda, the luatoe 

** OCem and 


LL 4848, On Mondagr , the nWHcaoon day of Pusfcya, which was the day of 0ttara* 

ya^m**!*^^* 11 ^^ m ^ Vy mtljpit* in the cyclic year Vyaya corresponding to the Saka y^ar 
1088, the Fifty Pmffldll of TtUigiui met together and granted the following inoome with the 
pouring of Wfttar to tli gioriou* god TtlUglivara after laving the feet of Chatidramauli- 
d(Svi the Sch&rya of 8iihhMv&Fftttt4f&a ' ' - 1 ' 

Iil 4442, Rfcch family in Cftntoaunmt and Town (%<n*U) each day measure out two sofasa of 
oil for an oihaill ; in th family (mm^mmng) the god's oil mill, oil measuring one sohsa (shoMbe 
remiwd) ; flva cm an oil mil! fat (tike offmng of) chafara and jro&m ; and five lisas from 

every ono of them* that prwm the mill ; om Jbjoj/a of jwarry per month from each family for 
oonductmg the feeding of people (** g^tats) that come to the 0tafto ; one mattar of garden 
situated at* ......*.**.. .wart of the path leading to Kalluru ; on the sacred occasion of 
$$p5t^i|* oiia of oil front each family (lAouW 6^ reoetved). 

Li 5244* Ttwi inctonifi granted by the Mve hundred wi^ninf in (Aeir) storehouse : for every 
gold O0in OBI* atix)a-nut from ntll^t and one from buy^cs ; one areca-nut fwm the counting officers 
eaoh time Tht inooiae gmiated by the dealers in betel-leaves : a hundred leaves 

for one onrUdficl, * hundred tor * buUock<4oftd fifty for a man's load and two shops in front of the 

B. ' ' ' ''" 

1. t.h^ }{Irifuu SIM! famous |(od Tellig6va3pa grant with kindness the prosperity ci 
;dom to th world-rnownwl BljjaladSva and kig VIra-Vikrama, 
V 9* Thar** wor* born to kiztg dilvu^^ of reputed virtues and to SidtdBvi (two) sofis 
namely, king Blljala and king Vlra-Vitoaina aa if they were the (two) eyes oc (iw) goals of 
life (if parent*}. 

V* 3. Of tlu-m, ihft rfdw wan prinoA Bi|Jla, a Cupid in form, a bee in the lotus feet of 
b, wltlt ft* mittg by all and au ocoan of polity^ 
V* 4, King Vlra-BIfJa^m triutad Siva Hko Narabi and was like Cfefla, a devotee Who did 

any rdigiouH ritw -what more to was learned like Baija. 

V. 8* this printw Vfra-BiJJiOa of iaer@aing fame, a shaft in the hearts of his> foes and *a 
" foHMttfeh, in th nlxty-four urte was the toband of Triiiut^vL 

ft. King Ylra*>ikrama looks majestic with fame e3dx>lled on earth 
_j tto (propw) lord <to bwr) th0 title of ah^kravartin, 

V, 7. If (Otr twmt a/) a Uger Ii takeu (to towpw* *M twfou.r ti*) i 

would .......hiMit 0f rpent s oppose ia a fitting manner ......and cow down 

the Dflfttlt dod. ! Hod 11 Vlra-Vflcrama i indeed a veritable waiasror. 

Vj w%t** * i * /yy/A^M* iUli < /4WJtJt4L4m) "fell ft fOrCd CHC IMU& uXOWcBB 

8 wjitt tttd<***<i can Siirvivo *** v**/*^ w*tKfo^'v/ 1/ *" / * v * * 

of Mi 'arm* ! Who <ioi* mrt uKrink in powr 1 Who does art rnn way Wpiw *** ^S 
(Mm) in Ktll ! Wb d not tnuUe or be pertuibed in mind and wfll not . ... .... . ... . . 

^ytWB ol hi* own 1 ' Wtot peou k that* that does not atretot to hands for the g*. rf tt 

* . 

V, . 1I pv^rf l ehkl VTm-Vlkrama gives (^.) to one that praxes 

t * 


VoL . XX. 

and Vfra-Vikramadiva .............. g^a at the ^ of 

with the pouring of ^ ftad ^ immun . ^ 

of Eraifabarage, the fortunate town existing from times inmn 


SAMVAT 207. 


i large stone lying in a field 
Bahadur Gaurishankar H. Ojha, 

commonly known 

the l^r-B.mbol of a 

cepbng the two imprecatory verses, the wlot record 1 
the following points may be D otedl CO ns7ntt T ^ 
-- (I- 9), etc. ; and'lefore r as in^Z V 

( ' 

al ^ g * * he ^ lasa of a ^abets ( 

t0 ** J dhUr . of 

as in 


m rreCt SaMtrit an<3 ' 
r<58pe0t f ortt ^Phy, 

" * ^** I J, 
B , etc. ; is written for i 

. of 

Other irustakes anpl irregularities are pointed out fcS ST 1 " " "^ ta J* 1 -^*^ (L 14) 
The jnsorip^ ^ of ^ ^ ^wSLS^f 61 """Wfe* the tttt* J 

ME? **'*, ^-^,*;zr to r v ;' as 8ho " n by *** * ^ 


(A.D. lOOfi), we know that tho Rashtrakufas -were ruling over RajputanS in the eleventh century 
A D. We also know from tho Birth inscription* of the RSsht;rakut king Amoghavaxsha I that 
Gevindaraja HI conquered Kfirala, Malava, Gurj&ra, etc., as far as Chitrakuta (ChitSr in Mcwar). 
This would how that the R&ihtirakfitnw ol the Deooan held their sway over some parts of Raj- 
putan& in th beginning of the ninth century A.D. Feasibly the Rashtrakutas of Dhan3p, 
which is war Mtmar, were related to the BbhtntHtM of the Deocan, and Dhavalappadeva may 
also have bmn related to them. Hi name seems to be of South-Indian' origin. 

The epigraph under notice deaoribee Dhardka as the son of Guhila, who then ruled over 
Dhavagartft (I. 2). Th CU|rt inBcri^tion' of B&laditya mentions , Dhanika *' 
Guhil*: On, DhnikMmM a local ruler in the inscription* dated Samvat 887 (A.D. 830), 
recently diKovl at NiUidn in tho Kharwi estate in Ajmer-Merwaw, but, then, he is de- 
8 crib e /a the father of Itoabhata. to*^*^*!***^ 
son of Ittwbtota. CSowwqiwrtlj there mut have been two Dhamkas and two Isanabhatas. 

The conteate of the inwrii-tion may be summed up as foUows :- 

After making an obeiace to the god ftf and giving the date as the eighth day or O 

of Ohavagarti, which ^.fl^fa autumn 


as well M in mntmrr) to two 

and the otlwi of Durgftdevi F ,',vumly estabhshed 

u. that th, abovn M4. wore it the 

W n of th <l<mr). In line. MO 

Line. 10-U t,H W that *. Enid. we 

of the donor awl bU pamt^ M bo 

line, 12-13, tte aHtumt of Afield, a 

th* lat line tails w that taeiwwripfcioa WM engrave 

4-5 inform 

nd d the i^o shop, 
ehgious merit and fame 
L above temple.. In 
ade. The fifteenth or 
son of Vaidya Glyaka. 

north todto. 

Vol. XII, y. U. 

** ** 

V ol, LBC, P- 

ffl aw ** ** 




Vol. XX. 

i mir 

No. 13.1 



i-t 18*' bv 121*, witt its corners rounded off 

This charter to ^^^^.^SS^^^^^^^ 
, !:!,;, SBOi toloa. Xbe plate W"?**^... .f * 4 tlie fax* of the four-armed 



Us parents. The date of this record is Samvat 1108 MSrgaMra 6udi 15, S6ma-dina,i 
On this day the ChandiEa king Divavarmadeva, Lord of Klliftjara, meditating on the feet 
of Vijayaplladeva who meditated on the feet of Vidyadharadeva, offered water to the Barnes 
of his ancestors, worshipped Sulapa^i or Siva and gave the village B^tapallikE, situated 
on the bank of the Yamuna river in the viskaya of Nava-rashfra-maj<Jala, to Pa^Jita 
Kfekana of the Kpsh$atreya-#<5tfra with 3 pravaras whose ancestors had emigrated from Kura* 
bhatlbhatagrEma. This Brahma^a was ever ready to expoun4 the Vdas, the Vd&6gas Itih5sa t 
the Puranas and Mimamsa and was devoted to skat-karma (shat-karm-Sbhirata), the prominent 
mention of which leads me to infer that he practised Yoga, 8 which is more a^e-iaspiring than 
the ordinary six 3 duties of a Brahma^a. 

The localities mentioned in this record have not yet been identified* excepting Kiiiftjara, 
whence the record was issued, and the Yamuna river on whose bank the village of Ehflta? 
pallika was situated. Both of them, viz., the fort of Kalifijara and the river Tamun& or JurnnS 
are too well known to require identification. The mention of the latter indicates sufficiently 
the locality of the village and the district in which it was included, DSvavarmadSva was the 
1 2th king of the Chandella dynasty and, if this record shows anything in regard to his capital 
and extent of his dominions, it indicates that he lived in the Kalifijara fort and that hie f5j ex- 
tended at least up to the Jwna in the north. But almost the same conclusion is derivable 
from his other record referred to before and tioae of Jhis predecessors, an account of which IL&S 
been giveji by the late Dr. Y. A. Smith in hi* exhaustive essay on the history and coinage of 
the Chandella dynasty. 4 But it may be noted here that in, hip zeal to show the great antiquity 
of the Chandella dynasty and its kingdom JejakaBhukti the designation waa later on changed 
to Jajhauti and taken as given after Jejaka or JayaSakti, the third king of the linehe has fallen 
into a blunder, to which enthusiasts, howsoever great, are sometimes liable. IE his article 6 
he has attempted to prove that CUh-cUJo, visited and described by Yuan Chwang in 04 1 
or 642 A.D., was no other than JijhSti. This would mean, that the country was named after a 
king, who was bom about 200 years later, as according to hiA* Jsj&ka aicended the throme about 
860 A JX 



Hilai's Jiidm ipkmwi* V. 8. HQ* f M%aHr lp f 
1> with no lunar eclipse qa that date* Tlwi date in V. 8 

^ tTT 1 !? * ^^ ^ 8th DMM1 * p - A ' B - lm ' ^* b WM 4 10H4T MU9M. * ' 

< The six ba$w-ydga practices are : *^ 

"" to^Aa nMwa^Herdtofew 

MMmsw-iKMi tam nm wuliM tr&taka8**tok& \ 
ka&ala-bkaft ch*aitani jfaf. kamm&w sam&chwet \\ 

8 gee Ante's iSfatwJW Dw^onar^ uiwbr daf-famum* 

* /, 4mt.. Vol. XXX VTT. n n A 

., Vol. XXXYII, pp. 1H fi. 
** 127* 

No. 14.1 









19 Arit(n:) mfiHforft*] igpt mKfl) irw frtw D*] 

wfir: iD*.u*l *J*ft(ftf) u: irfa- 

20 ijftf roro(*80fir i wt ??r H^(^)iwHt i a 

[11311*] irftr ssNrfrfiz n^^t^rrf'ir wf ift^fff qj^: [i f ] 


i *rT(*r)ratf'rar(ir)tf ^rwr I 8 

22 trrfoiR [i*]. 





These are two copper-plates having raised rims (f high) rivetted to them* Each plate 
Wefgha 180f tdw* but their ai^s diSer a little, the first measuring 14f * by UJ* and the second 
14* by 10f *. The former contains 18 line* of writing against 14 of the latter, On the first plate 
thereisa%TOofLate^ of the flr^t three lines, and at the bottom, a round 

kde in the middle of the last line. In the second plate space was left for a hole, but it was never 
to*de and hence the plates were not strung together as waa originally intended. The size of 
the letters in the first plate is y. They are smaller and 'more beautiful than those in 'the second 
plate, to cover the whole of which the engraver PSlha^a, a skilful artisan, aw he oallft himself, 
had l^ad to raise the size to f . In the case of the MahflbS plates of Sarfivat 1230,* I remarked 
htw PSlha^A worked up his way from the position of a ptoataKtoa to that of a wjMnin, and this 
tim% 6*, m years later, he raised himself to the position of a w^ffivUwfaman* (I 32). 
Dggpi^ this, there is hardly any improvement in his engraving. The fact temains that the 

1 B*d strofiT. Daqfa not required. 

Bend fnrt. * Ahovo, Vol. XVI, p. 10. 

WJiiwr ?Jate (Ixd. 4t, yd. XXV. pg. 208 ft. J, 8ty alatt give this epitbet.-Ed4 



and the text 11 unite to th* one *" with aeoe88ary changes, *u one Subha- 

of the previoua records of Paramarddideya. of Sagau45 village 

P. AT. P. Pritt^amadeva, dMoodad f rom J* > ^eroes ^ rf ^ religious merlt of 

to tb. Vikrm*-Sa^t 1236^ ^J^^La worth I^Hg mentioned and M 




[ Vot. XX. 

1 The fetter^ is superfluous, 
1 CPlnral onght to ha 

No. It. I 







Seoo-nd Plate. 


:) [M*] 

vrofw (fw )f*T! i iw 

i("fln i ift )U i'] 

with imttar 1 mwdi and what hM bwia 10ft 
*-- ; EcL" 

'ghMM BMtri'f SaMkiit Text, p. 284, 




The present charter is the earliest record of the Chandella king Vlravarmadeva yet 
found. The copper-plate on which it is engraved measures 15J* by llf * and weighs 2301 tolas. 
It has a raised rim, * in height, rivetted with nails all round it. In the middle of the first six 
lines there is a seated figure of the fo'ur-armed goddess Lakshml, holding lotus flowera in the 
two upper, and water pots in the two lower, hands. Over her head is a semi-circular hole appar- 
ently meant for a ring, which is wanting. There are 19 lines of writing with well formed letters 
the size of which is Y on an average. 

The language is Sanskrit and the orthographical peculiarities are the same aj found 
in other Chandella records published before. The record is not free from spelling and other 
mistakes, but they are comparatively fewer than in other similar records of the family. 

The charter was issued from Vilasapura by the P. M. P. Vlravarmadeva the devout 
worshipper of Mahesvara, and the Lord of KSlafijara,, son of the P. M, P. TrailSkyavarman 
r?u eP ',^ P ' *HH*.<ftlP. M. P.Madanavarmadeva, deeded 'from' 
JayaSakti and VijayaSakti, the famous heroes belonging to the ChandratrSya (Chandflla) linear 
It records the grant of Tumutuma village in the pahl m^ya to 5Sto Abhi, son of Rsm 

Stt 7 *f? JagadVa> ** f R " m DSvaahamG f the K % W" belonging to 
thefanulyo Chandresvara, on Alvina 6udi 8, SSmavara, Samvat 1311, which rLaty 
corresponds to Monday the 21st September 1254 A.D, The grantee is stated to hi 
formed a deed of valour in a tusale with Dabhyuhadavarman in the battle ol S6*Z * B ' 
recogmtxonwhereof this grant appears to have been made in spite of the fact that th^ur!! 
te^n^unteton^toiOfrum&a the Cantor Vlravariva !nH ! 

name. It is 8tete d in.the State GaMeer ( uardt Tw) L to ? \ ^ *" 
town as the remains of the earlier settlement rL \ J , ^ 1B Certeinl 7 ** old 

ta suggested as the taSlS^^^tiS^ ^""* *~ B ^ 
Rai . Our record refers to a battle a like mo^tL a Tu^ e ? ^ PUrmt f Chand 
tween members of the same lineage, * the^ndSs if t K *>t, apparently, be- 
name Dabhy^avarmaa would i'nicat ^t^ *T* < ? ll <rf ^ PPOnent ' fl 
of some importance to have been refe* J T T. - Jt must have be n 


-- .. ' AJU , 4,oiv?u W1O IttiLt) I IT V A. Uwtilli. i , * * " 

ChandSlla dynasty as one of the powers of Northern I dT T *? hiSt0ry " ~- 

Parmal (Paramarddideva) and the Nm+v, * u--i ~. D * * ^^ ^^ > ^^ ^e> death of 
' t ****** uuo vapuure or JCLailaiiiara flnrl itroT^ks "L ^i ** 

mraders. Trailokyavarman succeeded his f th P . ^anoos by the Muhamraadan 
eastern part of the ancestral kingdom and in due co^w * Iocal 1 ohieftain loMiflg the 
Bhojayarman' ". aue oourBe was succeeded by Vlravarman ond 

^in this record kvenofc been traced yet . 





4 vKlMf'I*MM'*!3I''!il'"fWl'?I*Jnff I 1 











17 ^ ^TsnfT^^Fwirera tfa wfofireft 

19 tfl 1 i [UK*] iratfvrHft ftfo ^m tfwfa [i*] 

af IT) 



This is the first copper-plate charter of the ChandeUa king HammlravarmadSva 
whom I brought to notice, a decade ago, in m 7 Damh Dlpaka, the Hindi Gazette* of the Damoh 
disfcnct in the Central Provinces, from a sati record which I found in the village Baahni of that 
district.^ When I visited the Ajavagadh fort, I came upon another sati stone record' mention- 
ing his name, which I included in the new account' of the Ajayagadh fort inscriptions revised 
since the visit of General Sir Alexander Cunningham aa detailed in his Survey Report 
VoL XXI. It appears to me that the Hamirpur district of the United Provinces, in which' 
Mahoba, the civil capital of the Chandellas, is included, derives its name from this Chandeila 
fang. Ci course, this district which borders on the CharkhSrI State, took its name from the 

thejumnfiand th 

The record is engraved on a copper-plate 11? long and 8f broad, with a raised rim V h 
height running all round the plate and secured on thelatter by nails. Its weight is 48 <Z only 
^middle of the first four fees of writing there is a figure of the fLarmed god 
Lakahml holding lotuses and water pots. On the top of the funire th, i. . fci * 
which was either not put in or has been taken ofl and los . ThX^L^ ' * 

" * -' 


1 See above, VoL XVI, p. 10, f. n 4! 

The record nms as follows : 

No. 14.] 


,,*,^ya tq two Brahmanas who were 
twelfth day ol the dark fortnight of BhSdrapada 
ihe Vikrama Sarhvat 1346, coirespetading to Sunday, the 

The document was written by Pmh[dita*] Rau(E5majpala. ' 
The lowilitie* mentioned in the record ate not traceable, 


; VoL V. pt. 2, HP"** * 























a, initial form of* 
$, initial form of 
S, medial form of 
a, used for ft 

Agmmitra, Suiiga 

aggrah&ra, s, a. agrahdra, 

79, 80, 81, 82, 86 

. . * 
. 134, 135 


a Mrfft ***, WO, 1*0, 111, 114, 11B. 

115, 119 

110, 111, U2 

111, 113, 114 

39, 44, 62, 63, m 

aJuhaOtniM (or akaJioya-n<X) 

copper-plate inscription of 

Valabhipura dated Gupta Safcvat 447 


Brftluni, '* 
Bevanagarl, * 
Gupta, ..- 
Jaina, 64 letters of- 
Kannft4 or Kanarese, 

.4T, 48, 49 & n., 50 


., indication of , by T"""" 


Sditioa.. ThaWUm****" 
^.dynafftf) * 
,yiilMW; *- 

tU]dng;--r 1 *'T 


jbabur inscription, 
Amga of Anga, co., 




[VOL. XX. 


57, 78, 80, 81, 85, 86, 88. 

Arnga or Anga, Jaina canonical work 77, 80, 89 & ft. 
Amgaja(= Cupid) ...... 117 

Aibnigeie, ttf., ..... IIS, 1W 

Amoghavarsha I, a BfotyraUfr h, . . SO 
, mistake for mbu> ... 104 


apwtri1ta*(foavvya $ 

Atiamalai inscription, 

Anainda or Ananda, a Buddhist teacher or 



Anaada Vase^Mputra, an architect, . 
Ananga (= Cupid), 

Anavas, . 
Antjaja, family, 

Andhaka, a demon, 
Andhraka, a Sunga L, 
Andhras, peopk 


. 102 
47, 52, 53 

. 101 

66 &n 
araUtfr (Skt. waghaffa), .... 124 

Jira^yakupagiri, 97, 99 

Aranyavasini, a form of Dwg&, * . 07, 99 

Arasib!4i, t., 1U 

Arhat, Atahat or Into, a Jina, 60, 62, 63, 79, 86, 88 r 


arihamta, s. a, arhat, . , * * . 
ArikulakSsari s, a. AriUjaya, 

Arifijaya, a OM\a prince, ... 47 

Artha6&6tra, a work, , . * 77 *., 81, 82, 87^, 
Aruarni, s. a. Avarni, . * * 
t. ahamSdha . 

75, 76 w f 

8, 36, 56, 74, 77, 84, 
85, 86w, 

4, 18, 20, 21, 23, 55, 56, 

Ashf&dhy&yi, a work 
Asdka, a Maunja emperor, 

a sacrifice, . 

Atapura inscription of Saktikumfira, 

yit an epithet of Siri-Chamtamula, 


Angitttara-Nikaya, a work, . ... 33 
Aniulwada, 8. a. Anahilapatana, 
antarahga, an official, . . 
Aatioclms III, a Syrian h, 
^nwtwra, initial forms of, . 
, medial forms of , . 
omission of , * 
awwvara, used f or m, 
o^i*!?dm^ used for w, . - 
awwsv&ra, uaed for nasals, . 
anwvara, superfluous, . 
Apftrajita, a Guhila fc., . . 
Aparajita, a Pattern L 9 . 

* 102 


. 72 

* 11 

. 122 

97, 122 
98, 99 

48, 49 & w., 50 

/Mat), titie of Demetrios, . 76 
a BuddkM 4004 4, 10, 14> 17, 

Aparinta{ka), <x?., . 7,8,22,35 

Aparaaela, a BudtiMst convent, . , , n 
Apara-selika, a BuMkisi sect, * * . 10 
ApBsa4 stone inscription of Adityasena, . . 38 

94, 96 

an officer, 131 and 

-clto^^ (8kt. 

a'^harmacha an 

epithet of Suddtw, . . . . 22, 20, 

Ava t 9, a. Avami, , 

apsidai slirine at Nagarjunikonda, 

ATaraiiita or Avarftuta, #. a. Aparintu, or ka 

Avararasa, ch. t 

Avara^aila, a Buddhist convent, * , 
Avara^ila, s. a. Avara^aila . 

Avarni, people 


2, 3, 4 

W 97 

84, 88 

79 t 84 




or pillar, 

and *. 

a, 7, 

07, 09 

* 26 

(ayyifa) ( 
tra, . a. Skt, 
wyira*haingha or 

BuddMst community, . # 11, 17, 20 P 26 
Ayddhyi, C, , 6, 54, 56, 57, 75, 100, 115, 116* 


tte figures refer to pages : . after a figure, to footnotes ; and add. to the additions. Th foUo-wing otltet 
abbreviations are used : ck**6hief ; co.^coimtry; eK.dis(aiot or division; <b,~dittoi %*dyBHMityj Jf* 
Eagteni;/.*femaie; fe.^king ; m,*Male; wci,motmtain ; n\-tiwj *. a.-same as; w.^Bmwundia 
temple; vt=TiUage or town; IF, Western, 



Ay&Uie, , i. Ay&lhyJL . 

Ayuktoka, oJWol* . 


59, 01 and n* 


*. a, 

65 and it., 08, 

. 115 

110 t 113, 115, 118, 


. 94, 97 

*. a* 

B 76, 80, 84, 85 r 88 

BIhU\ m., ., 


B*hutttt!y*( Bkt Bdhufarityr*), a 

BftUUUtyft, fc, 
B*U&|ft (r 

, am <tuth<n\ t * 
vjU^ I;K, f . 
Bin nil nun M,ti,/,, * * * 

un^ ??t* . 

iuka, an IkJuiku qmw f 

Barak tru> <fi., 
* a nU' f 

platw of 



. $9, 40, 43, 44 40 and % 

* 114 

94, 90 and n, 
. 134 

109, ill, 112, 114, 
115, 119 
110, 118, 121 
. . 8,30,84m 

39, 41, 43, 45 
. . . . 91 
. 4,14,19,20,31 

. 78 
90, 91, 93, 95 

. . . 100 
. * . 84 

* 114 
92, 94, 97 

04, 60, 07, 09 

* 109 

. . . 07, 09 
. 07, 09 


. . .' . . . , . 185 
\, , ..... 9 

Blmda(-Skt. Bhadra), m., . . 22,23*25,32 
Bhadalapura, s, a. Bhadrapara or Bhodra- 
ohalam, ...,,., 
Bhadalftpura, w\, , . . , . . 85 
Bhadafliri(-Skt. Bhadra^/., . . 22,23,32 
Bhadila, m,, . ..... 22 

BKadrabdhu, a Jaina author, . . . . 42 n. 

Bhadrabahu II, a Jaina monk ... 00 
Bhadrappa, eft., ...... 91 

107, 128 
. . 130 

Bhagalabb, a QMlukya queen, . . .69 
BJidgavata-Purana, a work, . . * . 55, 84 
BhagiyabbS^vara, te., , . . . .07,09 
bhajaibta t s. a. bhadanta, . . * .17,31 
MiafoklMjh, mistake for khambham, , . . 11, 20 
Bhaflja,^., .... 100, 10-1, 102 
Bb,anu, a Jaina sage, , . . . 90, 92, 95 
Bharadhavasa or Bharatavaaa (=Bharatavarslia), 
CO., ...'.. 73,78,79,82, 

Bharata, an author, 83 

Bharata, myth, k 93, 90 

Bharhut, vi., ...** 75 
Bhaaatimita, s> a. Bahasatimita, 

an Ikhdku princess, . 5, 15, 24, 31 

), an official, 
Bhatfa, title of a Brahmin, 


Bhattdji Dikshita, a grammarian, 

. 102 

. 93n. 

00, 07, 70 

. 80*. 

Bhapana, ... 

BMvapraka&a, a work, 

bhaya, s. a. bbariya**8kt. bhfoya, ... 13 

JO) epithet of EJ&raoela, ... 80 

aBuddMrtmonk, .... 12 

BhiUama or Bhfflamadeva, a Tadava k. , * 113 

Bh!ma Kratha, a Tadava k 81 

bMmgara or bhingara ( - bhringdra ), . 79, 87 and n. 

. 84 

Poromawfc, . MM** 

Bk6jadva, a 

/.-fan*; fc- 



[ VOL. XX. 




Bfcojaka, people* . . .74, 78, 79, 84,S7 and *, 

Bhojaka, s. a, Mahabhoja, . 

Bliojavarmadeva, a Chandetta k n 

Bkujagabbaraai, a, queen, . 

bhukti, a territorial division, , 

Bhutaraprana (BMtaratei fyparvan, 105, 107, 108 

BMtopaffika, t., . . . . . 126, 127 

Bhuta-Vikramakesari, a Koftumlalur ch., . . 47 
Bhuvanaikamalladeva, a Chdlukya k., . . Ill 
BfouvaneSvar, vi*, . .... 71 

Bidar, *., ....... 91 

fcitfSra, possibly 5. a. birfafa (a tar), 94, 96 and n. 
Bihar, t?i. s , ...... 40n. 

Bijjaja <w Bijja}adeva, a Stnda prime, .110, 117, 121 

h, 109, 110, 112, 115, 
118, 120 

Bijjana (or }a), a 

bitoma, 8. a. bilma, 
Irilma, a Mmet ? , 
Bkwm}a Dugga, w 

Bodh-Gaya, ?>., 

Bodh-Gaya inscription of Mahanaman, 

79, 87 and n. 
94, 97 
94, 96. 
38, 42 

. , 38 
BodObi,/. ........ 22 

B6dhi image, 
Bddhi or SaifcbodM, 
Bodha^,, *., 
^Za) ..... 10, 22, 31^ 36 

BMhisaiSima(Skt. Bodhi-Sarman), ., . 22, 23, 31t 
Bodhisiri, /., . . 7,9,1^14^22,23,31*36 


... 106 


44, 46 
22, 31 

Brahmaputm, n, 

Brihadratha, a Mawrya h 9 
, a worlc, 



BudcLhaghosha, an author^ 
Buddharaja, a Kalacfruri h, 
Buddhism, a re%ion, . 
. a, Buddba, . 

43, 44. 45, 46 and , 129 

10 36 


Budhagupta, a Gupta L, 
Budluutuouka,/*, . 
Budhavanikina, /., 
Budhi(*Buddhi),/., . 
Budhirtmaka or Budhinaka, w., 
Budhi[va]niya, m., 
Bundelkhandi, dialect of Hindi, 

Ceylon, an island, 
Oeylonese Convent, & a, 
Chaohoha, m., 
Cfcaidya, %., 
chaitra*pavitra 9 

. 25 t 31 

* 59, 61 

22, 23, 31 

22, 23, 31 


. 22^ 2a 

22, n, 31 


. 10, 48 
f 10 
123, 124 

117* 121 

( - Skt 

chalcra-lafahaya*), an epithet of the Buddha^ , '22, 

Chakra-kotya, *. a. 
ChaKmvartin, a Mfo, 

4 82,110,118,121 

, 28 

Oh&lnkya or Oh&lukya, %., 10, 67, 69, 75, SO, 81, 87%. 
Chajukya (Western), dy,, . 

109, 110, 112, 115 S 

Cliamba, a 

Chanida(Skt. Chandra), m ..... m>U 
a /Sfwb gueen, H0 t 114, 116, 110 

a BwMMst monk, , 12, 9, 83, 2S 

Cliaihtamula, a, a, Sir 

iSri, an IMS Jb prinom, 4 nd n. f 

5, 6, 7, 11, 13, 15, IQ and n t , 17, 19, 21, 28 

ISO, l 130 

Chaijujika, a goddess, . 
Ckandraoaaauji (or dSva), a 

Chandragupta, a M'aurya fc, 
Chaadragutti, ^, 

a Ttvtiuwblcara, 
Chandratreya, 9. a, 

m * 97, 99 

. 110, 1 1 7 t 

120, 121 

77 and n,, 88n. 

# 94, 97 
] 132,133 

Charaka, a war Jb, 89r '' 

* 96ft* 

Chadtrovardhana, a commentator, , 

102, 130, 131, 133, 136 
. .94,97 

ChhathiBiri (Bkt. Shaahthi'srt), 

Ch&tiniri, *. a, ChaihtisM, . 
Ch&t8$ inscription of BiBditya, . 


MrdUak aft?fta() . 24,28 
Hour fragrant 

rH**ii y v ****'* w 'V'""' " - * > 

article) 39aad,4344 

Chnla-Chamdamukha (=Skt. Kshudra Chandra- 
mukha),*. 22 ' 23 - 28 

Chuk-Cha[rii]tisirinika, /e of KTiamdacha- 
Kkto*w*a 4,18,18,19,88 

OO O9 'Ifi 

Chula-Bha^raagiri, a UU, . * - ^8 

Chula-Mula (=8kt. Kshudra-Mula), m., . 22,,23, a 

Conjeeveram, vt., , ' f 

consonants, doubling of , 

consonants, doubled after r, . 

consonants, used for vowels, . ' 

c. . 14, 28 

Chwwer, an aurtor, ..... 

> ...... 

niktak for VEva^arwa . - 


d, doubling of , after r, 
<2a ( forms of , * 
Pabhala or Pahala, co., 
Dabhyuhacjavarman, * 
Babok, vi. f < 
Dahl, <li., 



iMo ..... ' 


. 80 
132, 133 

. '60, 61 


Damirike, 8. a. Tamilagani, * 

Bamodarpur copper-plates of *J^^^ 

ameaswe, . ^ 

Bakflhinapali, ., 

Damila (-Skt. Dravi4a) ^., or people, 

Wri, an IfcUta e*, 

. 79, 87 

Dappula, a Ceylon 

epithet of ike Buddha, 

China connected with tf/w' 
(Chitor), tn., 
<sfciw<w*ttl(--monk'B robe) 

. 123 

. 39, 44 

47, 49, 60, 64 

Buddha),/.,. 26,28 

Chih-M-Co, co., . * * ' ' * 
Chiiiita, Chilada, CHlaa or ChilayafSkt. Ki- 

nUa), a tribe, . 
Ohil&ta(Skt. Kirata), co,, 
China, co., . 
China, co., . 
China inscription of Pulumavi, 

JS.a8enii ., 
^.temple; i. village or tow; lf. 




=" -r-r 

tfays, lunar ; 


bright fortnight : 

r\(\ fin 

Bevashamu, m., . 
Bevavarmmadeva, a ChandMla k., . 

132, 133 


* 90, 93 

Beyimge^e, a tank, , . 0{ 

, 4.*- 1 

>> 06, 68, 70 

8th, , 

65, 67, 122, 123, 132, 133 

dha> used for $ha, 


12th, . 

Bhama, m., , 


110, 118 

Dhama-chaka (wheel of law), . 

25, 20, 37 

*> 9*i 

15th, . 
dark fortnight : 


>hama.raja,epithet of Xh&ravela, 
Bhammaghoaa (Skt. BharmaghQsha), 

* &M, iso, 

Hn t? ff\<\ 

12th, . 


Dhammagiri (=Skt. Bharmagiri), . a. Na 

-60, 29 

13th, . 


days of the fortnight ; 

110, 117 

dhathma-maMmata, an official, 
Bhammanandi, a Buddhist monk, .' 1*3 


99 OiS *>ti 


4, 21, 22 

Bhammarakkhita, do. * 

<, ^o, iJjJ 

10th, . . ' 
13th, . 
days of the month; 


4, 16, 17, 18, 19 
. 22, 23 

Bhana (dSva, bhuti), m', . .' * 
Bhanaidaha copper-plate, 
Bhanaka, a elm or family, . m ] 

55, 58, 57 
# 18, 20 


days of the week : 


B|ianakataka or Dhannakataka (Skt. " 
Bhanjakataka, co., . ". . ' 9 , 

idityavara, . 

* . 67 

w a 

nd n. f 10, 

Monday, . 5^ { 
Monday (SomavaraJ, 

V 1 

51, 65M10, 117, 122, 129, 


Bhanapati (Kub^ra), a demigod, . 
Bhanika, a prince, 
Bhandp inscription of Ohachcha of Sam. 1063 

116, 120 

* 123 
i 123 

Sunday (Idityavara), 

65, 69, 90, 95, 135, 136 

Dhara '^"' 78 
Bharam'kota, vi., . ' 
Dharavarsha. AiV^/?/, ~* ... . 

1Q6, W8 

Tuetday, . . m 47,50,51,53,65,110 
Tuesday (Sevvay-kkijamai), . . 50 

B^buvaka, a locaUiy, . 

Bemaladev!, a Sinda queen, 

. 98, 99 

suffix, , 

s. a. Bemetrios,, 

Bemetrios H, do. 
Bmaiioa, a Roman h, . 
dentals, cerebralisation of , 

deae, . . 
Bevabhumi, a ^^o &, 

, a Jaio feacA^r, , 

demkvfa (^ temple), . 
dlvatywt, one of the 18 panas, , 
Bevapaladfiva, a Pato h, 
(4Skt. ' 

111, 114 
76, 79, 84, 87 

19, 29 

. 94, 96 


0, 92, 93, 96 

2?, 23, 36 
97, 99, 116 

Dhannapala, a Pala k 

Dhannma. . a. Dhannmanatha 







Bhadi, vi., . 

, ... 

Bhaulj, inscriptions of A&ka 
Bhavagartta, ttf,, 
Bhwlappadeva, a PatamZm 

16, 18, 19, 20, 20, 30 





Jaina SauruaSnl, . 




MarathI (Northern), 


, 82w. 
73, 88, 



73, S2n. 


Digambara, a Jaim ml, . . - 63n - 91 
Dtoha- Majhimd-mk&ya* Buddhist *m&wu, 29, 32 

* 1 1 1 7 1 Q 9ft 

Digha-niMya, ^ 11, i *,.> *v 

Dlkshita, /o*if nam . - 106,108 

Dimatra, *. a, Bemetrios, . ^ . 

Dimita, ^* a. Bemetrioi, .... 

Dinakaramilra, ct cowiwwwto^*"* * * 

AM^eota, . :Wd*..W 

i, a 

a BwWItol u?or Ar, 

D6ara, a. a. Totail t 

D5sarfnd f ** Tow.ll t 
, a 

or DramlK a, a* 
/ grain, 

, 62, 64 

55, 75^,, 86n., 


01 4} Old; 

. iU 



. , - W 
60, 61, 82, v 63 
122, 123, 124 


eolipsos : 

lunar ..... 12Qn., 12 

T2tj.ayattimaAgalam, *'., . * * ^^ 
Bhuvttla (?) Ohanitamula, an IkMku k, t . 10 
81a, otic o/ /Ac four fragrant article* (Mtur- 
&toka, ,..... 3^ H - 
.... 05 and ., 67, 01) 

eras : 


Chalukya Vikrnma, 



DAalava, , 






74 ' 86 


CS and w., 67, 69 


.. 9M3 

Vikramaditya, . ' 7 
BraAbarapura, . tf. Erambarage, . H5, 116, 120 
Eukratides, ftactrian Is ...... 7 ^ 

Buthydemoa I, an huto-Qteek h, . ; ^ ^ 

laridpur copper-plates, . 
Fifty Families of Telligaa, 


. 59 60 

116, H7, 
120, 121 

. 92, 95 

Eye wMtas, Jaina practices, , 

iprtmghta:- ^ ^ 4> 6 , 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 23 

Forty-Eight Thousand MaheSvaras, 4 

00, forms of 


^^rsns^s^^SHr:^^^ f 
yzzzttzzzzz =^=r - ' " 

temple; pi. -village or towns TT.-Wo.Wm, 



[ VOL. XX. 

Oarfadhara or Gandhara, co., 

(= accountancy), 


. 68, 70 
.* 90* 

,j j 

PW ywtw, commuml and 'professional guilds, . 90, 94 

Gamlharva, a cUu* of demi-ffoti, . . , 87 


(i&rg*-*aihhito 9 a work, . 
(taruda emblem, , 
ttaruda-Pnruna, a' work, 
Gautama Buddha, a. . Buddha, 
^autaznlputra Satakarni, &,, 
< tontamiputra Sri Yajna.&ttakarni, an 
genitive case, use of-, , 
gha 9 forms of , . 

49, 66 and * 

, a name of Durtfi, 
uddhist inscription, 
Ghosunijr inscription, . 
Ghugrahati copper-plates, , 
Girivraja, s. a. Rajagjiha, 
Oirnar, mo., . 

Girnar, Inscriptions of Asoka 
Glyaka, w., . 
Ooa, ttf., 

, name of a field, . 

, *. a. GuMla, Guhadatta or Guhaditya 
/*fcr o/ a 
Gohalika, w., 


. 105 
58, 69* 

. 35, 74 

. 67, 69 
122, 124 


. 60 

122, 123, 125 

Govimda^Krishna), . 
Govinda II, a R&styrakuta k., 
Govinda III, do. 
Govinda-Bhafta, m . t 
Guhanandin, a Jaina monk, . 
Guhila, progenitor of the Guhila dy. t 
Guhila, dy., 

Guhilot, a family, ... 

Gummacjiduru, vi. t . , . 

Gfummatan&tba, a. a. Bahubali (a Jaina saint), ' 94 97 

116, 120 


49, 50, 123 
05, 69, 70 
60, 62, 63 

. 97, 98 
. 123 

Gupta, dy 

Gupti-Gtipta, a Jaina, pontiff, , 

Gurjara, co., . 

Gutta ( Gupta), ... 

Gutfci, vi. t , 

67, 68, 70 and n. 

116, 120 
. 114 


k used for * in Kanarese, 
Hagasiri, tn., . 
Haghamna, w., , 
Haihaya, dy 
bala, a land measure, 
half chronogram, . 

Gam ffi a^ r a,a^^,. . 

Goradhagiri (Gorath.giri), . Barabar ^,73^, 7^ 

, w., 
Gotamlputa, an epithet o 

gotras : 



Hammasari, s. rt, Hamraasiri, 
Hammasid, aw Ihh&ku princes*, 
Hatfamasiriaika, *. a. Hamraasiri, 
Hammiravarmadeva, a Ohand&la 
an author, . 

ifti, a work, 
Haridasa, w., . 
Haripala, w,, . 
HarimMa, an epic, 


* 25, 35 
- 22, 23, 35 

105, 107 

- 100 
. 94, 96 


4, 14, 19, 20, 35 

* t 

134, 135 


132, 133 

* 81,36- 

116, m 

* %"', 

Hastinapura, w., 
Hathlgumpha, a cave, 
Hebbal inscription of Harasimha II, 
HSmachandra, an author 
Hernadri, do. 
Himalaya, ; 

Hiram flaka 

"" " 1^^. ' ' o, ji, 19, 35 



Hirumutfmva, a locality, * 
Biuen Taiang, a Cftsnm pilgrim, 


0'SaUimh<w<4-faila^atCMaha3a : p<id- 
&I/K cpithtt of $inCh&vfofaM&la, * 10, 20, 24, 35 

. 118 
. 22, 23, 36 
8, 9, 10, 11, 40, 

a, form of, 59 

Horiu/.i palm-leal manuscript, ... 38 
Hoaur record, * 65 
Etottfir inscription- (of Saka 959), ... 65 
Hoyafcl*, c2y., * 100, 112, 113, 114, 116, 119 

Hughs, m, . . . . * 25, 36 
Hul^Cir inscription of Saka 960, . , 65 

Hu$a& o tribe, ** 40, 41 
Hut&fona, & gradt ...... 103 

> & JKw9w3M&& ft*, 7 

i, initial form of, 
f medial form of 
IcJaiyarru-nlUJu, <#., 
Ikbaku, dy., 

..... 73 
..... 73 

46, 47, 51, 52, 53 
2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 10, 16, 17, 18, 19, 
20,21, 22, 23,24,26,27 

Ikhaku (Ikkhakus-Ikshvaku), mt/tb. &., . . 6 

(-fifct. Ikehv&ku-rfya-pravara-rshi* 

, <*n epithet 
of the Buddha, ...... &> 27 


. . 80 
., . * - 47,51,53 

W, 92 

100, 104 

, ' 98 


. 123 
. 109 
. 53, 54 

Imnia4i ^adaAiva-Nayaka, aw. o 

Insoription of Chitor dated V. S. 1331, 
i, a tax, . 

Xgvara, te. 9 
Ifivara-Bhattaraka, a god, 


132, 133 
118, 122 
2, 3, 7, 10, 12 
. 77, 88., 95 
. 113, 1X4 
. 126 and t. 
. 91 
. 61, 62 
109, 115, 118 
. 79w., 88, 106, 107 
. 79, 87 7i. 

Jagate^vara, a god, 
Jaggayyape^a, a Buddhist site, 
Jainism, religion, . 
Jaitugi, a Ycidava k. t . . 
Jajhauti, s. a, Jejakabkuktf, . 
Oalihalu, 00., 
Jambudeva, vi. t . 
janapada, . 

Janapada, . 

^cw, mistake for 2/0^0*, . . . 101,102 
Jayadbhudaya, mistake for Jayabhyadaya, , 93 
JayakSM, a K&damba ch., , , .11? 
a commentary on the Kamaautras 


Jayanandin, a Jaina monk, 
Jayafiakti, a Chandel 
Jayaaiihha (II), a W 
Jayaatambha, a Chamba I 
Jayasvamin, m. t . 
je, used for ye\ 
Jejaka, s. a. Jayasakti, 
Jej^kabhukti, kingdom, . 
Jentaka, m., 

Jijhoti, . a. Jejakabhukti 
Jina, ^4r^a, 
Jina (Buddlia), * 

126, 129y 

. 65 

57 and n. 
. 127 
. 125 
. 126 

126 and n. 
. 97 t 99 

60, 62^., 88 
. 44,46 

kara (f 

^a^oman^Awm), an epithet of the Buddha, . 22, 28 
itta (*Skt. jita-r&i- 
^ an epithet of i 




Jodhpur inscription of Pratihar* Bauka, . 1^2 
Jogimara cave inscription, . * 81n - 
jugala, mistake for yugala*. . . , .101 

Juna>ga4h rock-inscription of Rudraaamaiu . 3^, ^ 
Justin, an author* 

The figures refer to pages : n. after a figure, to 
other abbreviations are used :<&. chief ; CO^OCPITO 
w s Eastern ; /.= female ; jfc.=king ; w. male ; mo. 
le." temple ; 'ti.p village or town ; PT. Western. 


odd. to the additions. The fallowing 
^^ ? d 

, a.-s^me as; ^n 



[ VOL. XX. 


Kanakadri, a. a. Meru 115 

K kaniam, a coin, .... 47, 52, 63, 54 

4 doubling of-, after r Kanauj, t 40 

*. doubling of -, bafore V, .' ' * ' 5 5 9 9 (Conjeeveram ))W -. 4 9 

*, doubling of-, before a, " m 26 

Kadambapadraka,*., ' ' 105 106 I0 ***** Kri^vStf o, KrMuja- 

Kaikeyr,^.^'. ' "* "* ver^a, ,. . Kp^a . . . . 

Kailasa, ^o., "* Kanhargadh, * a. Seondha, . ... 132 

Kaaka,7ftfaMt, Kanh^ inscriptions at -, . ... 84 

fefajnfataitfo . ' ' ' I ***,**** nuann, 53,5* 

Kajaohuri, dy., . ' " " 80 Kwmapa " M 66 . 89 

Kalachurya,^., . 109j 11 ', 111,' H 2 , \ 13 , n7 , 120 H^^a,".,. 
Kalakappanagudda, w ' * '' JJ" &W*PW Kawriwwi, . ft ! 

Kalameilvara, fe ' ' ' g? Ka M*^w5. Krishna, . . . . i 

Kalaajara,/o< r . .' .' 126 'l^g 132 133 las I K * 5ia 8 la "8 ft ' a " "fetake f or Kai>ur , . . 95 
Kalant6patina-balke,afotZ%, '. " '. ' . 94 ^ M^^-e*^***""^^^ Jafww, . 90,92,98, 
kalanju, a, weigJii t . . ^ g/ - . 95, 96 

Kalara-kkurram, &'., . ' ' KP, Kapi or Kapu, w., . 89, 90 t 92, 93, 9*. 95, 96 

Kaiara-kurram, w'., . \ " ' ' ' 47 Karabe^a. . a. KafihabeAija . . ; 83 
b&.anwicalimfrum^, ' ' " ' Kar ^*Hi record of Saka 933, . . . 6 5n. 

. 115, il7, i u. ** ika ': M !**... 40, 42, 44, 45 

J^arapnnnime, a vwwn* , 65 and % ft* TA 

TOA I , "^ ^ w * na w 00, 7(1 

I Jfc^re 

g ^. f 55 56*75 f ir ' * * * ^ ^ 

Kalimga or Kalinga, co., \ 8 , 36, 72, 73, 74, 77, ' arfvi * 30 ' * 
79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86 and a., 87 88 

KpaH.lUk.tZUM*,, row I'***** 1 **'*' M, 

f or 'adhi**. m* r him ^ Xutffito-BMHtHUhia, a work, 

80,85,88 Kftr W a ' (Mt ^iew 127 

KalirigaorKalMgaaagari.*.-., . 77, 79] 83, M Kara * ii PP ir5 ** i y Slr ' ?" of ParHntaims. 

* 77 SQ * * * . 47 
"o^ k&whQpana, a coin, . ' 

115, 117, 121 Karuriibudhina m, ** 

7 ir * * * ^ ^ ^^ 

Kalsi, Inscriptions of Asoka at '" J r,!?.?'-^'' \ ' " " ' * ^ 

Kalya^w., ..'.*.' ni 222'^-' '" 58 

Ktarip. 1 !!!?^^ ^JjJJ K ^^MKashmir>(Skt.Ka4mIra),^ 7.V J 

116,120 tato,acoi * * 35 ^ 

8?n.nrf ir-/ * 47, 52 aad w., 53 

* 83 and n. Ka^yapgya, name of a field, .... 124 

KatgSri, vi., . t 

4,iaand,17,27 Katyayana, an author, '. ' ' ' *' "* 

KampaYaman/aPotoflfe, ' ' 4g* ...4 1 ^ ^^ mS ^ * Wen > ' 

(^^^^J^^^.^ K^ w - gi 

9 ' 10 ' 22 ^ gautalya^Kautiiya.a;^^ | ] j^ 

l^e figures refer to pages : w. after a figure f """""" "" ~ "" - 

other abbreviations are used- di=oheif- co =7' tnote8 ; an<i ^^ to the additions. 

"- i;/^female; Jfc^king; w, Jnafc .- !!!!^L*:^ ^o.^dittoj 
i or 




. 16, 27 

Kayaaena, a caste, 
iayaatha, scribe, 
Kaladi, family, 


. 123 
130, 133, 136 

. 115 

110 f 113, 115, 118, 121 
91, 123 
. 94, 97 
65 and n., 66 
64, 65, 67, 69 

. 26, 28 
5, 18, 19, 28 
4, 16 and n,, 17,21 

Kelava4i-300, di. $ 

Kerala, co., .... 

K&sana, m., . 

KSiavarasa, w 

KS^avayya, m., . 

kha, forms of , . 

Khainda (8kanda) 

KhaihciachalikirertimaijakR, ch*, 

Khanldas&garinn(or n)aka, . 

Khamdasagammnaka, *. <*. Khamdasagataib. 

naga, 28 

Khaitidaviaakhanaka (or Khan4avisakham.- 

$aka),cfc 6,18,28 

Khaniy&** pillar, 24,28 

fcfted&, .85 

Khlraveia, a Kaluga fc., 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 79, 
80, 81, 82, 83, 84n*, 86, 86 and n., "87k, 

83n., 89 

Khatri, a oa*te, * * * * 7n. 

. 80 
, " . . 79, 183 

'.''". 86 

; 100,102 

Eikkana,m., 126,128 

Klra4i, identified with Kirayi^f 12d 
, <i co. or a people, * ' * 7 > 8 

Kistna, d. fl, 

Ko4ambaiar, dy., 
K5(or KI)ka4agrama, 

. 129,130 
' . . ' ^""39;44,46 

. ' 4 ';"' lA -i,tlo,26 

, HI, 112, 113, 114, 115, 

U8, 121 

JCo^ika, k., 

Kopai>a, 9. a. KopaU a 
a, co., . . 

. 47 

135, 136 

117, 121 

. 88*. 

92, 94, 97 

55, 57, 75 


- ' 

refer to pages: n. after a figure, to 



KS^alas, people, . . . . . . 83 

Koaam or Kau6ambi, m., . . . . 75 

K6t?avumachgi, m 64, 67 

le . . . . 91 

(=Skt, Kdahthagariba), an official, 7 
and 7i., 22, 23, 28 

Kotitlrtha 127 

kdpfa, cow-pen, . . . . . ^8, 70 
Kottampalugu, a Buddhist site, . . 3, 5, 6, 15 
Arrow*, mistake for fcrimi, . . . .135 
ICrishna, ri.,. . 1, 2, 77 and n*, 79, 83, 113, 114 
I^shnavarna, *. a. Elriahna, . . . * 1 
Krishijaveinna, *. a. riahnave*nf, . &3 
Ma, form of, . . . . &* 
Icskawralcax, one of iKe 28 panas, . . .9071. 
Ku<Ja, inscriptions at, . . . . 84 
Ku4epasiri or K&4epa, a Kalihgd 1,, . . 80 r 82 

. 90. 
T . 6, 10, 18, 19, 28 

Kulahaka, a dan or family, 
Kulahapt>O#ra, a monastery, . 
Kula^ekhara, ch., . . . 
KulattuAga-Ondla I, a (Mia fc., 
kulya, measure of grain, 
kulyavapa, land measure, 
Kumaramatya, an official, 
Kmnamnandin, a /afwa monk, 
Kumar! or Kumari-pavata, a MU, 
kumbWtica*, one of the 

. 112 

'. ' .'", 78 
V' 1 " 1 1' 61 
. 77, 80, 88 

. no 

126, 127 

Kanala, sonofAtoka, . 

. 64, 68, 70 
100, 115, 119 

., 83 

Kuntala, co., 

KunneSvara, *<i., 

Jcuravtokaa (kwrajatoa ?), one of (he IB pa*as* 

Kuru, myth. L, 81 


Knrukshetra, w. f * 70 

Icuruva (= Jkt*r6c=a tender cocoanutt), 
Kushana, dy., ^ . . ^ 
Kusumadhvaja, . 
Jeut&nta, mistake for lerit&nta,. 


1 9 change of , into r, . 
la, change of , into r, 


. 101 
130, 133 

. 86 

add. to the addition*. The following 
do.<=ditto ; *fy.=<f 

vi\>T0kge or to^m ^.Western, 


Joined for Jo, . 
LafchmadSyt, a Sinda queen, . 


[ VOL. XX 

form of Siva, 

. 109 
. 111,114 
110, 117, 120 
. 117 t 120 and n. 
121, 125, 127, 128, 132 
. 46 47, 51 

width ? 
Mftgadha, co., 

LaUtakirtfc, Jain* teacher*, . 

Hindi, , 55 

Kanarose or Kannatfa, , 28, 64, 65n., 90, 109 



Mah&bliarata, epic, 

a wor Je t 

(of Jatilavamman), . gj 
57, 75, 76, 77, 78, 80, 82, 84, 85, 


* 66n, 

78, 83, 84n,, S2n. 




38, 65, 59, 64, 66*., 73, 90, 100, 

Mhika, *. a. Katfiika, . 

105, 122, 125, 129, 182, 136 

Mahabh6jas Bhojakas, . 
MahabliojiB, s. a. Mahabhojaa 
mukha), m 

, a work, 
Ldniapada, a Tadava h, 


79, 81, 82 

. 81n. 


. 136 

Mahaohetiya (or Mahaohetlya), 


2, 23, 32 

!or MoMda^a 9 ), an official, 5, 7 

a god, 



I05 ' I07 - 

, 110, 114, 118 

m, coniTe form ol 

*****(-*>. maMMarnato 
ty ( great prwher of the aw), an epithet, 

m final, use of , 
* terminal, fonn of 
mo, forms of 


122, 123, 124 
HO, 112, J18, 121 
106, 107, 108 
and n. 

a Me, 
an official, 

16,93,94,95, 96 

an official, . 
, grandmother, , ] 
MahamSghavahana, , 

title of JKhar av<to> 




an official, 


Mahlkkhita a BwWIit* kflkJ^r, , 
trii, CO., . . . . 
i, ptopb, . 

mistake for MahlrajabMlki, . 4,19 
,, atfto, . * 5, 6, 73, 79, 84, 106, 135 
a title or qpittef, . 67,69,93,95, 
105, 106, 108, 117, 120, U2, 123, 126, 129' 

133, 135 

78, 84*. 

100, 102 
, 64, 65 

Mabiiina (Skandft), a 0w#> .6, 16, 17, 19, 20, 01, 23 
It, a lilli, . 4, * 6 f 7, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 

* 7, 13* 18, 19, 32 
4p 5, 6, 7 and n* 16, 17* 
18, UrAQi.W/M 

i or M, a lilfc, . 4 f 5, 7, 13, 14, 16, 17, 


t, ** a* 


, a itlb, 


. . * ! 

7 wid n,, 8, 10 n., 

28, 36, 48 

. 10 

a Jm" 

a BuJOM 



. 79, 

1, . 10 

. 42,72 


. 132 

. 52, 53, 54 

11, 24, 25, 32 


. 81 
. 128 

, a Buddhist work, . 


^, 17, 19, 32, 

, 8 

MaIS4a, m* . 

Malaprabha, rt., . 

Millava, co., . . . . 

Mtilavikdynimitra, a work, > 

Malik, a title, 


MaUa, a demon, 

co., . . 

i, a form of Siva, . ., vi., . , ^ . 
Hallinatha, a commentator, . 
, *. a, MalEru, . 
a rdigiou* division, 

39, 41 und n., 43, 44, 45, 46 and n. 

, di 
Ma^akkal, Maijalkal or Mauarkalt W. 

a work, 

- ' ' " ! 
Mafiohapuri Cave insoripi?on or 

.'' 113,114 

. .123 

. . 55, 75 


' '. [ r " 81 

. 65n. 

, . 91 

. ' . 65 w. 

91, to, 94, 96 

. . IT7, 58 

. . u 92 

11 7, ' 120 n. 

. 117,121 


47, 51/53, 54 
. ^ ^",'186 
,.,. 4 , , ./^, 54 

Mandara, mythical % 

of a diviai 

WIT' if! 4() 

of JayafliAgha of V. S. 1112, ; 105 
fnfllrf, . . 66andn,,68,70 

MaAgala (a)-trayoda^i, .... 91,94,96 

Maifagalilr, vi * 94, 97 

Maftgalfiru, di. f .... 90,91,93,95 

i.t*., r * M 

. 20 
. 116 

Hai^igaya, mistake for Majjhima, 
Man6ja( Cupid),. 
JJHansSJtira, Jnsriptions of 


Jf antrin, an official, 
Mann, a sage, . 
Manusmriti, a work, 
mawya, a grant, , 
Mara, a cfmon, . 
Marakabbe-Bhatari, a 

39, 41, 43 
&, 87ft. 

67, 68, 69, 70 
. 22, 23 

. 47,48,53 

tomplo; t* 




*. a. Varaguna-Maaaraja I, 48, 50, 


months : 

*i**,,aGangach, .... a6n, 
Maravafc Pudiyir, 4. a. Parantakan IJang8yJar, 47 


Maravannan, a . 

M&rgapa, Maiyapati or Marff&a, . 
Marnimakabhavaka, name of afield, 
Haramnandana (=BWma), an epic hero, 

Masulipatam, w\, 


. 124 
. 116 

. 8,9 

. 21 

(or if) puta, an epithet, 
jmta, *. a. Matfharlputa, 
Mathura, t*., 

Mattamayiim,a^, AW 

woar, a land mature, . 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 117, 118, 

121, 122 

26, 74, 76, 78, 87 

Bhadrapada, . 




Katika, *. a. Karttika, 

Magha, . 

Marga^ira, . 

Marga^irsha, . 




[ VOL. XX. 

"' TS 


91, 132, 134 

122, 123, 135, 136 

110, 129, 130 

47, 53 

90, 93, 95, 105, 106, 108 
. 98, 99 

61, 63, 64, 105, 107 
. 126 

dia changed into tennis and vice versa, 

nf, a work, - 
Migkad^a, a work, -. 
Menander, <*>* Indo-Qh k,, . 

. 55, 73, 75, 77, 83, 

. 12 

IWS^alas, , a. Mushikas, 
Mricfohhakatika, a work, 
Mi Abu inscription of Samarasiihha, 
Mudrar&lcahasa, a work, 
MukhalingSdrara, te. 

64, 67, 69 Muktapltfa Lalitaditya, a KaaTmir k., 

Mula, m 




105, 107 
64, 65 and w., 67. 69, 110, 117, 121 

. 50, 5 2 

ft, 8871. 

22, 23 

61, 62 

w " " ' ' 0J, oa 

Mula-samgha, a subdivision of the Jaino*, 90, 92, 95 

Mulavaniya, m., . 00 

. -w, ^3 

MGJGra Bejile, m. t 

. 94, 97 

57 and n., 58 

metres ; 

SaHni, .. 

Sardttlavikrfdiitam, . ! 

SmgcLhara, . 


Mihkakula, Hfina *., . ' . 
MWndapanba, a work, . 
Mimlanaa, a whool'of Philosophy, 

101, 106 
101, 106 
. 106 
44., 101 


Dtame ending in, . 

39, 44w., 101, 106 

- 40 and n. 

7, Sn., 35, 36 



. 22, 23 

~ v ..^ f ,.,, t * * 
Mumjaya-Sahani, m. f . f 110 , U, m, 122 
Muniohandrad6va, yiim / Devatfandradeva, . ' 90 

92, 93, 96 

''*""*** .91 

mu > 94 98 

MuriyaMla * 7ft 80 

MQahikaa or Musikas, people, 

Musi, n., 

Mflsika or Muaika, co., . 

r -~~f . m 

Muaika-nagara or anagaram, vi, . 
Musika-nagara, a. a. Muziria (?) t 
Mutautha w Mutautha-BhaMagrah&ra, 
Muvarkovil insoription, . 
Muziris, a port, 

n t doubling of ,, after r, 

. 83, 84w., 87 
77 aud . t 83 
83, 84 and n 
77, 79, 84 84 
. 77 
129, 130 
* S4n, 

Nantfivannan III, a PoMava fc. 

used for n, 
, used for , 

f, erratic use of i 

or nala, a land measure, 

Naga, a JBwcWMiri monk. 
N&gab6dhinlk&,/,, * 
Nagadiman, tf*., 

12, 22, 23, 30 

. 22,23,30 

. 122,123 

] . . 66,68,70 

' 124 

. 22,23,30 

one qf tKe four fragrant ariides, 

t. jt'- ftm /i/HW/iL * * 

an official, 


, a mound of 

. 61 f 63 

2, 3, 4, 7, 9, 10, 

11, 12, 15 

; 1,37 

. 25, 30 

* 60, 61 
. 3, 14, 36 

Narasixhha II, a Hoysala k. t , 
Naravarmadeva, a Param&ra i 

Narayana, a god, . 

Narayaija, w., 

a wiccwwre, . 

Naregal, i. f 


. 114 
105, 106, 107, 

. 67, 69 

105, 106, 108 

. 52, 53 

39, 43, 44, 46 

. 87 

r,^. (;*.. "'* 

Nareyangal, '., . 

_ -VI 

, ^. Naregal, 

Nareyaga, ^. , 

nasal, changed into cwtiw^a, 
3$ &aik catve inscription, 
NatlxaSannan (nnma), ., 


. 135,136 

37, 38,89 and *., 

, . 67, 115 


59, 61 and ^. 62, 63 
83, 87w. 

11, 12, 22, 


N&naghat insoriptiona, . 

Kanda, dy., ' 

ft ** 

90 and *, 94 
. 46,61,^ 
110 and w., 117* 

. 75,84,87 

and n., 88 and n. 

. 74, 83 


nikapanika, * 



. 52 ~ " " 
) and nt 50, 51 .&&$&** o* n*r *-- - - 

*fL -- T^^r^fo"^ othcr 

^S^*^SS; T-^^* *; 

^co-untry, A-f^i^t ii-i - ""^ 

. . '89 

. . ise 

. .80,61 
. .92.M 
. .HW 

. . 
. l 
. .21,30 

'. . '^.j'iflfijiri,,!,! 

:. ' . ^^^.t' 
and n. 53, 64 

. . 
. . 
. 8 

! i,se. 



[ VOL. XX, 

niwr&ana, a land measure, 
Bki. nirv&sa, . 
Ksiiatrapa, dy., 

. 61, 62, 63 

105, 106, 108 
. 80, 85, 


n, do., , 

numerical sign or symbol for ; 
1* .... 



(**paduka-pafta or patulca , or 
patuka^ footprint slab, .... 37 

Paduma, m., 25, 30 

Paduma(Padma),/., 25,30 

48 and n., 49, 50 Padumavanl,/. 15, 25, 30 

47 I Paharpur, vi., 59^ ^ 

PahuflappakapaK, 134 

. 12, 59 Pfclasafta, m., 61 ^ 

12*22 PmT>ri ' 

19 99 fid I * 

i,*,6,w Pama$a, aa engraver, . 129,131 

12, 21, 22 Pallava , %j f 0W ^ J0> 4(J ^ 4g> ^ ^ 

12, 21 Pallavamalla, epithet of Nandivarman II, 48, 49 and 

10, . 
50, , 
70, . 

100, . 

Nyasa, a vjorle, 

. 22, 59 

12, 21, 22 I Palur% St a j> antapUTa> 

59 [Pajlura, vi., 
12, 22, 23 pamcJwmdhapataka, 
59 pamcha-mcttuJca, . 
12 ' 19 PariwJa^Skt. 

10 1O RQ 

' ltff oy p^(Za, mistake for pamcha, 

" PariKja-Eaja, . 
. 66 and n,, 67, 70 j Pa^agam^-Skt. 

, a Sectarian division, 

0, initial f ona dl , 

0, utefe of, in mas. stems ending in a, . 

panch-<ich&ra f fin religious practices t 

, one of the 

, i jjj |~ ^v.^^^,^ 

75, *6 and n, Pafkshalftd ^^ ^^ cAY, - 

110 and w., 117^ 121 
Om or SiddhLam> symbol for , 

omission of doubling of consonants, 
omission* of top Mnes in *a t ma and y$, 
Ompttr^ A* a. Sdinapura, 
OrkKon Inscriptions, . , 




j?> cfmiiged to v, 
pa, sttodlng for 


27 f Panohatmtra, a wor k, . 

1 * 

t cave inscription, . 

n., 50 

. 8,36 

. 22, 23- 




19 flwxd n* 

. 78', 80 

17, 19, 36 

* 90n, 
60, 08, 70 


. OOn. 

100, 102 

* 39 7 44 
. 62 91. 


. 104 

. 74, 83 

48, 49, 50, 77, 85, SB, 100, 112, 
116, _ 
a title of Varagu#a*Mah&rtiya 47, 

Padmini, a-flto* of women, 





Paracbakrak61&hala, (StfmSra Srfvallabha ) 

a P8w4ya k ** ^* 
parakSsarivarman, a Ck&l& & . . * 47 
, a title, . 61, 63, 67, 69, 105, 
106, 108, 117, 120, 122S, 123, 126, 129, 133, 


\ (sacred Jaiaa literature), . * 77 
titte, . 129, 133, 


ParamarcldidSva, a CfaandtiUa &, 129, 132, 

133, 135 

, a tW$ . 67, 69, 105, 106, 108, 117, 
120, 122, 123, 126, 127, 129, 133, 135 

partotaka I, a OWjto k f 

17, 19, 20^1 23 

t),OW0/^I5jKMM, 90n. 

. . . 68, 70 
SO, 31 
. 88n. 
106, 108 
92, 04, 97 
.21, 31 

. 136 
. 25> 30 
. 89 
75, 76, 77, 85 

. . 37 

. 39n. 
106, 1(MT, 108 

. . . -21.31 
. . . m,121 
. . . . 66n. 
. 8 and n., 9 
* 109,112,114,116,119 
. . 11*. 

Perma- Jagadekamalla, a Chafatya k. t 
Pennmadi III, a Sinda p'ince, 
PerumanadigaJ, a god . 
Perum&na4iyal-a(l>iy&%, a fo' 
Phalgudeva, . 

, a no** 

jali, an oitrtor, 


Pitinakas, people, . 
jntaotaAfl, a father's t**Ur, 
Pitundra, ** a. Pithum(J.a, 
Pkt. c fcafl> cAo. 
Podhiya, *. a, p54iyo (!) 
Polugub64 mound, . 
Pora(=Skt. Pawrot), , 
Prabhakara, on author , . 
a work, 


Atrd- ArclioliaaattaBft- Sy&va(Sva, 
Vaia-Bbaiggava-Cbyavar x ^ f 
Aurwa-iTtoadagnya, . 
idhara ' 
Prithviraja, a 

Ptolemy, an author, 
Pubba-sela, a B*ddM# convent, 
Pubba-Belika, a Buddhist sect. 
padi-Mchchapi4ariyfr. ff ^ 

, a work, 



. 112 

111, 113 

. 53, 54 

. 40n, 

. 55, 56, 57 

. 123 

73, 78, 85, 88 

. 84 

. 1C, 31 

. 78, 79 

. . 73 



79, 87it. 

. . 66 

. 66, 67, 70 


. 62 

. 61 

105, 106, 108 

. 39, 41, 43 

. 106 

. 127 

. 106, 108 

, 50 

. 61,62,63 
. . W 
8, 9 t 78, 84, 85 
. . 11 
. . 10, 11 




[ VOL. XX. 

Fuluinavi, an Indhra k., 74 

Pundra, co., 81 

Pun<Jravardhana, dL, . . , .60,61,63 
Ptindravardhana, identified with MaMsthangarli, 61 
Paphagiri (=Skt. Puskpagiri), a Mil ? . 22, 23, 36 

Puranm, 55,56,58 

Purigere, di., 66 

Purika or Punka-grama, w., . . . . 87ft' 
Purisadata, s. a. Siri-Virapurisadata, . . 2 

pwrisa-yuga, 79, 86w-. 

Purnnendrasena, a Buddhist monk, , 39, 42, 44, 46 

Ptiruravas, myth, k., 80 

PurvadeSachaityaparipati, a toork, . . . 42 w. 
Purva&iila, a Buddhist convent, 9 

Purva^ailiya, a Buddhist sect, .... 10 
Purva&la, ^ a. Puira&ula, 9 

Pusamitta, (Prakrit form of Pushyaraitra), . 56 

Pusnkariniglialf, 124 

Pnshpamitra, mistake for Pushyamitra, . . 56, 75 
Pnsnpajrara, 9. a. Pataliputra, ... 76 
Pushyamitra, a Sunga h, . 55, 56, 57, 58, 75, 76 

and n. 

Puatapala, 62 

Puva-mja, mistake for Ava-raja, . . 84 

Puvasela, *. a. Parva&tila, a hill, . 9, 22, 23, 36 

r, antique form of , . 
r and J, used for f and 2, 
ra, use of , . 
Maghuwih$a, a work, . 

(or jya)dSva, eh., 
Kajagana or g|ilia, vi>, 

f, one of the 


. 57, 58 

102, 131, 133 

108 and n m 

42, 78, 79, 87 


. t 47,49^,53 
wr . o/ Maj&ndra Chdfa U * 78 

Jl&j&naka, a title, 


Bajapala, w., . ..... 131 

R&japwam&vara, a title, . . 93 & ^ ( d(rf, 

rajapwritsha, . 1SI, 133 

Raja^imha, a Pa%<}ya, k,, . t . . 50, 51 
Mjasi-'Fasu-Ma-viMrito, epith t <?/ ftharavda, 80 
a sacrifice, 56, 79, 84, 87 

iWt a work, . . . . * 41 w. 

Bajavali-tray-opeta, a tftfe, . , 135 and w^ 

Bajendra Clidla II, a. a, Kulftttunga Chdja I, , 78 
Eajgir, 5, a. Bajagjiha, ... 78 and n 
Eakkhita, a Buddhist monk, . . , , 8, 36 
Eamabhadra (=B.ama), an epic hero, . , 69 
Kamadasa, w., ..... .62 

Ramarajayya, aVijayanagara k, . &Q, 91, 93, 95 
BamI,/., ..... C2, 03 

Ba^abhailja, a Bhanja k, , 100 

Mqakft, a title . , # j.00, 102 

Rlmka Niyarnama, cA., . 100, 102 

Ranod inscription, , . , * .105 
Ranopali, name of an enclosure, ... 54 
RMtrakiita, dy., . . 48 and n. $ 49, 50, 77, 83, 


RashtraMtaa f Bhanop, . . ,123 
Ratana, w ? ....... 130 

Rathika or Ratnaka, people, 74, 78, 79, 84, 87 and n. 
*. a. Maharatlii, . . . . 73 

., . . . , l$5 f 136 
Ratita, *i&! ..... 132,133 

Rayagiha (Skt. Rajagrihu), . 42, 

R&yfan&yaka, a title, ..... 91 

Bay<frr&ja~gurumarh4al-ach&rya> diruda of Jf-wni- 
chcvndradtiva, ...... 93 

Baya*vadi~#itfi l maha) do, t . 93 

Revata, w., ....*. 22, 23 

Revatimnika,/., ...... 22,23 

Risftkas, s. a, Rathikas, 84 

R5na (Ron), w f ,, . . 64,67,09 

Rudradaman, a Kshatrapa h,. . . . 4 

Eudradharabhatarika, a ^eerv * 4, 5, 13, 19 and 

. 4 

. 4 

79, 81, 82 

. 81 



Eudraseim, a Kshatrapa &.,., 
Rudrasimha, do. * . 
rfijpa, currency, 

Mpa-farfaka (Examiner of coins), . 
. a. 

!Pne %ires refer to pages r n. after a figure, to footnotes ; and add. to the additions. The f ollowmg other 

tfumfwe^ ^-4itto; 

Eaatern; /.-bmk; fc^fcing; m.male 5 mo^m^mim ; n.riyer; . a..aftmo as; 
. village or town; FT. 





8, initial, changed into h in personal names, . 13 
s, used f or I, . * . 122 

*, uso of-, for J and ah, ' . , . 72, 90 
8&biLt'<\, name, of a field, ..... 124 
tSabdakal'padruma, a worJk, . . . 39n., 58 

SabdamM, do 81 

&abdanuB#ana, do %3n. 

SedMiva-Nayaka, a Jft/acK cA., * 90, 91, 93, 90 
SadWivaraya, a F^aj/awaflwa Jfc*, . , 90, 93, 95 

8aotfd*I *, a, ChiEda, 8 

Sagitt46 w',, 129, 130 

Sagmra, a myA. Jb,,. , , . , 69 

Sttgn-raihi^aka, a etaft* 25 

Bahae<>ttung4, title of Bijjala and Vikrama, , 

.65, 67, 69, 110, 117 t 121 

*jpfc'fe, group of seven Jaina texte 

saumya-dartana), an epithet of the BtkWfta, . 22, 34 

... 57 


Buddhist monks), 
Samiibhilgft, a Suluja k., 

. 39, 44, 46 

. 50 
. 79, 87 

do ..... 67, 69, 118* m 

Satakarfmi, or Satakarni, , an Andhw k> 

- 19,34 
74 and IK, 75, 83, 84 

=- -..^-tsstt^iSfiSstst* f 

wfiftMoiui are ed-:-HA.-oliief ; M. country , ~ .- as; jiir^HBwm| fc.~ 


saihghayana, assemblage, 
samka, mistake for fahlca, 
Saihka^'-Senabova, m. t . 
tfatima-sattobudha (*=Skt. 
a title of the Buddha . 


* 88n. 

. BO, 86, 80ft. 

. 103 


16, 18, 19, 20, 34 

, 97, 98 

Samma-saihbuga, mistake for Samma-sambuddha, 18 
8ammela&kharati'rthamala f a work, . 

Samoli, i. f 

Samprati, a grandson of A&oka, 
aamAaro(Skt. *a7?wtora), a layer, . 
Samudragapta, a Gupta emperor, * 

sandhi 9 violation of, . * 
aangha, Buddhist community, 

Sankaragana, a Kalachuri L, 
jSafikha, jfween of Nandiwrmw HI, 


S9, 97, 122 
12, 39, 40, 44, 
45, 46, 88*u 
. 80 

Eaetern ; /. female ; fc.= 

or tofn; IT.- Western- 



[ VOL. XX. 

Sail record of Saifcvat 1346, 
Sat! stone record, . 
satika s> a. zaptika. 
fiatnibhafija, a Bhanja &,, 
^atrmaptangdharanQ, a tifte, 
sattra, . 

8atyaraya, a biruda, . 
Satyatapa, a &age t 
fiftuddhodani, *. a. Buddha, 
Saudyumna, a clan, 
Saiilla, name of a street, . 
&(*varhnv( Skt. aar vajfia), 


. 135 

134 wu} * 

100, 101 

. 44,45 
. 67, 69 
117, 120 
. 43,44 

. 124 
16, 19, 34 

. 22, 34 
. 34 

an epithet of the Buddha, * 
mva-niyuta (=Skt, $arva-niyukta), 
8ava-&adhu-vachhala (= Skt. 

sola), an epithet of Chaihtitiir i, . . * .16,34 

Sava-aat-anuTcafapaJca (=Skt. Sarva-aattv-anu- 

ka^paka), an epithet of the Buddha, 16, 18, 19, 34 
Savathe&uapatihata-wihkapa (=8kt. Sarv&rtheshu 
apraMhata-saMalpa), an epithet of Siri Ch&m- 
tamufa ........ 16. 26 

seasons : 

Hemanta (Winter), , 4, 21, 22, 23, 35 

Rainy, . 4,16,19,20,21 

*ete-Miaihbha (Skt. MfattomKhe), . 18, 19, 21, 34 
-maifajava) (=Skfc. Mla-man- 

. .19,34 
.12, 22, 34 

. 53, 54 

Skt. taila-stambtui), 
t stone mason, . . 

^. a, Sondk% 

*ey or chey> . . . 
Seyya-Aparajita, m 
Sh&baasgarM, Inscriptions of Asoka at . 84 
*Aaf.feoma, probably six yoga, jjrocto'c&Sg 126 and n* 9 

Shuja-'ud-daula, aNawab oj Audh>. , . 54 

. . 86n., 88n. 

Siddhantokaumudt, a work, 
Sidiihattha, m. 9 .. 


f 22 , 23 ,36 

abbreviated form of &%Uditya t ... 98 
Silabhafija, a Bhanja L 9 100, 101 

Sliachandra, m 40, 4, 44 

&&ditya, a AfMte fc, . 97,98,99 

Siladitya VI of Valabhipura, . . . D8 and w t 
Sfllditya VII, a ValabM k., . ' . * . 98*r 
SilamSgha Sena I, a Ceylon k., 48 

[a or Sindhuja, a queen of Siitihapatha, 80, 86 

a. a. Six&ha, 

a. a. Singa^ia, . . ,114 

109, 111, 112, 114, 115, 119 

80, S9 

a monastery, . 110,117,121 



109, 110, 111, 112, 114, 115, 116, 119 

Si&lia, a mnda cA., . 
Sitiihapatha, co., ? 

Simuka, an Andhra jfc,,, 
Sind,n, t 
Sinda, dy. t 
Sindhurftjadeva, a Paramara h, 
Si&ga I, a Sinda prince, , . 
Sirigapa or SiAganadeva, a Yadaw 
Singa^adeva, c/i., . . 
(II), a Sinda ch, .. 
Plates, .. 

105, 106, 108 
. 11 1 

. 113, 1H 
. .111 
. 110, 111 

Ski-Chamtamiila (or Siri Ohata ), an Ilch&\ku k. 9 8, 5, 

6, 11, 13, 17. 18, 19, 20, 21, 24, 28, 34 

Skidev!, a Sinda queen, . . . 110,117,121 

Siri-Ehuvula (or Ehuvala)-Chatamula (or Chaiti- 

tanitla), an IJcMku k. 9 . . 3 and n., 5, 6 f 

Siripavata. (or Siripawata s-Skt. Srlparvata), 

i? 9,22,23,36 
i, an Andhra Jb,, ; , , # 

2, 3 

Siri-Virapurkadata or Vlra, an Itohaku Jc. 9 

and %., 4 5, 6, 7 f 11, 13, 14, 15, 10, )7, 

. 18,19,20,21,22,24,34 

a. a. Sirid^vi, . , 111,113,114 

w:, . .. . . , , 49 


inscription of the Rashtrakflfca king 
Am5ghavarsha I, ..... J23 
Sftalanatlia, a Jaina Tfrthaibkara, ... 85 
Siva, a god, . 65n., 100, 110, 1W, 120, 121, 123 

Sivamara II, a W. Gatiga Jb., , . . , 49, 50 
Siva^aga, m. 9 

fiivaflkandavarman, a Pattava k., 
a ivorJc, . 

g^ $ 84 
gin., 92 

figwm refor to 
fck, ve nwd; 
/.^emalei *. 
temple; ^village or to^n; F, Western. 

: **. alter a %jre, uo JQOUDOIB ; and od. to the additions, The folloivinf other 
; ^^dietriot or division; do,ditto; c^. dynasty ; Jf.- 



Smar&r&ti( - Siva), <* god t 
Sdbhanarasa, cA. f . 

9ofaaa, a 

85ma, a god, , 

*owa (Skt 

SOmapura, , a. Ompur, ttf , t 

, m,, 
a, agod * 

IV, a 
86ttdhf, a locality, . 
Sopirt, w" 


** <* Maxmara 


6rimira r a 

firl Satakaripi, an 



fc., , 


. 106 

65 and tt,, 66 
. 53, 54 

117, 121 


22, 34 




* 67, 69 
113, 114 
132, 133 
. 8,35 
. 114 
. 136 

, 67, 69 
. 66n, 

. 125 

. 50,51 

106, 108 



. 100 

, knowledae of Jaina scripture*, 
Btambha, *. a. Kambaa, 

* 1AA 1.A9 

BtarabhSSvftri, a goddess, * lw *"* 

Btrabo, an atcffor , 7fl 


_ . 129 

Subh&nanda, *. *. Subh&txanda Vtotoyya, . 132 
gubharija, m l86 

^ 39,41,45 

flOdl Inscription of the Kaladfcarya king, 

1W) 111 

8nff&nga or SxiaMJi^lya, a pafoee, . 75, 80, 88 and *. 

^^ ^^ 81 

Smhma, co,, 

-9ira),aM . 103,126,127 

m "130 

r tW*fttf. a **^^ ... 33 

SumerUj mo., 
auihnha (=3kt. < 
Sunanda, /., 
Suftga, dy,, . 


. 94, 96 

. 43, 45 

. 22,24,34 

. . 67 
55, 56, 57, 75 

&upabudha*bddhi (-Skt, 8uptabvddhabddhi) t an 

epithet of the Buddha* . . , . . 19, 34 
Surparaka, a. a. Sopafa. 

svadgfa, . , . . .39 and n., 44, 46 

8vamidatta, tn 40,42,44,46 

Svapata, m 130 

Svarabhakti, use of, 12 

Srargapud, a cave, 72 

jSvoatika, a symbol, 74 

Svetambara, a Jaina sect, . . 63n., 77, 89n. 
8y&d'v&da> Jaim *<&ool of ptokaopky, . . 92, 95 
Symbol for 200, 122; 123 

to, forms of, . . 73 

tatfi, . 5^54 

toyin, . ...,.*. 41 

l^iti ** ** 

^'(yfw . 41 

Taila II, a Chalutya Jfc,, . . . . 65, 66 

Takkolam inscription of Rajak&arivarman, . 47 

lakflhaka, a myth, k, 57, 58 

Taktthatiia, vi. t . 
Talaivayan, in., . 

talavAtato* - 

Talavara, an official, 

Tal-w&r, a sub-taste. 

Taxhbapaihnaka, monJfc* ofToMawtkni or 

Tambapattaji, or Tarfibapaafani-dfea 

tdmwa, miatake for titara* 

Tamllagam, co., 
Tamira, . . Dravi4a, 
Tamira or Tramira, *. 

temple ; *rf,HDagt of fcoimi "*" 



[ VOL. XX. 

Tanasuliya or Tanasuliya-Vata .75, 78, 79, 87 and n. 
Utntnwyiw, one of the IS panas, . ^ n ' 
Tapa-achara, ...... 95 

taravara, , ..... 7 

Tariht, an official, ..... 7 

Tarna>diw$a1cara-pabha, an epithet of the 
Buddha, ...... '.2^20 

Tepjrermda, epithet of Nandivarman H, 49,, 51, 52 
Tepirerinda-Nandippottavarman, a Pallava &, . 48 

. . . 46, 49, 50, 51, 52 

. 109, 110, 116, 117, 118, 120, 

121, m 

Tellaru, ri., . 
TcHige^ara, a 

Tetoka-dha^ma-dhura-vaha (Skt. 

dharma-dhura-mha), an epithet of the Buddha, 23,29 
Termavan IJaiigSvejar, s, a, Parantakai* I}an- 

gdvelar, ....... 47 

Terasa-iwa-sattJcaih, , 88ft. 

to, change of , into dha, . . , . 73, 82 
Thakura Ke^ava, an official, , 106, 107, 108 

sSkt. $thavira), a senior Buddhist monk,* 29 
fheriya, fraternity or community of the 
Buddhist monks, ..... 22, 29 

fhira> mistake for sthira, . , . .101 
Tibet, co., ....... 41 

TiJdm, ..... 39,41,43,45 

TiLJdai (Piladai), s. a, Chilada, ... 8 
tila-gMfakas, one of the 18 pa@as, . 90w, 

Tffla&thanara, w., .... 47,49^ 

Tillaistlianam inscription of Rajakesarivarman, 47 
Tiriitriiji-gacliolilia, a mbdim&ion, of the Jaims, 90, 92, 

Tiraioheiidurai inscription, * 
Tirumalarasa or Tirumarasa, $ur. of Madda- 

82, 90 

Tiramale, $, a. Tirapati, . 
Urnppalattatai, m. t 
Tiruttavatturai, a. a. Lalgu4i> 

. 90,93,94,96 

.. 92, 95, 97 


- 46, 51, 52, 53, 54 

Tiravalanga^u plates, 49 

TiraYelJarai, m* 9 ...... 50 

Tiravoniy tr Adhipuri^vara temple inscription, 78 



ia, ^. a. Dhannaka^aka, . . 9 
epithet of 

Tosala, co., ..* 

Tobias, people 83 

To3ali,c0 7,8,22,23,36 

Trailokyamalla, epithet of Taila III, . . 1 12 
TrailSkyararmmadeva, a Chandella h, . 132, 133, 

o.: . . 78,79,88 

tri t used for tri, 127 

Tribiiuvanamalla, epithet of Kdachurya king 

Bijjana, 110,117,120 

Tribhuranamalla, title of Vikram&dityadgva (F), 64, 


Tripuradyi, a Sinda queen, 
Tuju or Tu]uva, co., . 
Tumu^uma, vi. t 

110,111, 11 8, 121 
132, 133 

Twya (**tw*ya), group of four Jaina text* . 77,80 
twiyati ( Skt, toaritaifo), . * 73, 89. 

tvak, one of the four fragrant article* $ 
T\Vo Khiftjalis, ft, 



w, used for fi 9 

. urdhvayita) f 

Uoholiangi, w.> 

. 112 

UdayMityadeva, a Paramftra k, 
UdayagM, mo., 

105, 106, 108 

Udyapui inscription of Aparajita, . . .38, 97 

Udayeudiram plates, . , 49 

Udlchlpati, a title, . . * .39,41,43 
Udraka, w., 

Udwhatatva, a work, . * . . . 

. . 58 
. , 4, 35 
. . 10 
Ujjain Plates of Bhdjad&rt of V, S, 1078 . 105 
Cjjantagiri, . a. tJrjayat-giri (Mt Girnr), , 92, 


4, 6, 109, 115, 116, ItfQ 
64 t 65, 68, 67, f 

Ujanika, 5. a, Uje"nika ? , 
Ujanika, s. a, Skt, Ujjayim, . 

Ujjayini (=Ujjain), m., 
Ummachige, ^'., , , 

www (saSkt, wJwteha), a coping stone, 
upadhmamya, use of , . . 

, 25, 27 

. 122 

Tne figrires refer to pages : . after a figture, to footnotes? and odd. to the additions. The following 
ether abbrorotioiis are used ; c^chief ; ca.?oountry ; diandistriob or division | do*** ditto j %. dynasty ; 
2f.=Easteni;/.female; ^.*Mng; m,aale| mo. mountain j nWher; 3. a.* same as; wr,fs 
/e. temple ;.= village or town: W,** Western, 





li., . . 105,106,108 
' . . . 47,53,54 

94, 96 

tTrocJoya, village officer, ... 05, 66, 68, 70 
Utarapadha, or Utarapatha ( = Skt. Uttarapatha), 
oo 78, 78, 79, 88 and*. 

Otkala, co,, * 

: inscription, * 

tJ, ouraiva form of 
^ used for 6, 
vffl, contraction of 

va, secondary fon of % 
a f written like ra, 
(or ka) rai 

i, ( Vardhamina), ** a*, 


Vaidya (1 
Vaidya YaWdlva. TO., * 

, a. a. Vayiragara 
a, *., ' 
Vajraxnitra, a Sunga fe., . 

( - Buddha), 


, mtetakefotWa, 
Valabhl or Valabhipnra, 
VaUabha 9 aw 


* 109 


. 90 


. fl, S3, 54 


. 107, 108 


. 124 

UK; 131 

130, 133 

* 123 

. 7,10 


. '. 78 

. 78, 87 

. 56 

44, 46 and ft- 

100 and n t 

. lOOw, 

. 124 

. 101 

Varftsa, co. ? 
VamMvall of the Ohamba Rajas, 
Vanavasa (North Kanaraj, co,, 

Vanavasas or Vanavasikas, people, . 
Vanavaai, VanavM or Vanavaaa, C3$, 


. 57, 58 
5, 6, 7 and n 
6, 15 
83, 84t&. 
22, 23, 24 

Vanga, co., 22,23,81 

Varagu^al, aPan^yak., . . 50 and ,, 51 

Varagu^a II, do, ^0 and n 

Varagu^a II, 5. a. Varaguijavarman II, 49 

Varaguijta, Queen of Bhutivikramakeaarin. 47 
Varaguija-Maharaya, a Panfya L, , 47, 48, 52, 53 

Varagu$a-Maharaja I, do *&f M 

Varaguija-Maharaja II, do 49 

Varaguj^avannan II, do, ^8 

wrtJ*,eot 91and,,4 

ftft Tfl 

Vara^a^i, vi, - * * 

Varddhamana Mahavira or Mahavira, Jaina 


ffwthamkarat * OOT&,, wu, *, ^w 

Varthdhamana, mistake for Varddhamana, * 92 

, . 103 

Varaha, a god, * * * j .,* , 

Vaaethiputa, an, epithet of Bbi-XhwNl*OMto>* 

-T *^ 5 

mula, ' t 

V&sethiputa, 5. a. Vasi^hlputa, - -21, 24 

Siva-fei- Satakarm, an ^wdftra fc., 74 


a metronymic, 

aw ejpi^e* o/ Kamdasiri, . *> 16 17 
aw epithet of KhawdachalilMTeifa- 

manaka, 4, 18, 19 

Vasithiputa, on e^ei o/ MaMkaihMri, 6, 20, 21 

and m, 17, 18, 19, 20 
Vasithlputa, an epithet of Siri-Pufrmayi, . 
Vastavya, a Rayastha family, . . . 182 

s, one of the 18 panaa p . . . 90 

80, 81, 86 t 88, 89 
, . _ _ ^ 

Vasudevanayaka, ch.> J 

aSungah 55 * 56 

. 60, 61, ^ 
60, 61, 62, 63 
. 97 f 98, 99 
I and tL, 99 


Vat?a-G6haH, identified with 
, vi 


Vatapura, a. a* Vasaataga4h, 
Vfttsyayana, an author . . * 
vavahara (=Skt, vyavahfrv)* CM law, 
Yavaijarasa, , * * * 

Vaylragara, a. a. 


Vedesaitha, dj\, 
vedinai t a tax, 

VSlurpaJaiyam platea, 

Ji grant, . 

. 65, 66 


117, 120 

58, 75, 61 



. . 33 

16 and ., \1, 33 

. * 

* * 4 

i, a tax 

a work 

. 53, 54 

* $4 




Yidarbha, a Yadava king, .... 81 
Vidarbha, co. or ttf . . . . .82 

ei<Z&, religious law . . . 79, 852 
Vidliika, a ^cme wa^ion, .... 12, 22, 23 


. 4% 45, 87 

. 126,127 

HO, 1.16 WO 

. % 7,9 

.. 8n- 

q^ 91 

. l?6 

. . \l$ 

. 22,23,36 


. 100, 102 
.,. 1^9 

J^o, lJ7 fc Ul 
.. 79 

a eeac^er, 

Vijaya-chaka, .. 
Vijayonagam, m., 

ijayS^a^^ a 8iw ti1>q&, 
eijfldnt'n, artisan, . . *, 
, a /Siwfo jwtwce, . . 

Yikiamiditya, *. 

Vikramaditya VI, a Chafakya &> 

114, 1S1 
87n f 1U, ^3 

VikramaditjadSra (V), a W. CWvkya k $ . 64, W 

. 67, 

Vilata, mistake for CMata, 
Vinayavijaya, an awftor , 
Viadkya, wo., 
wnrfw, mistake for bindu, 
Vi^huka4a Chutukullnanda, 

Vira-Ballala, a Hoywfa 

^a or 

[ VOL. XX- 

"T"" v:i * 



8)t, 63 
. 104 

113, 114 
110, 111, 
113, 114, 117, 118, 121 
. 88n. 

a Jatna wrfe, ... 
a UJOT Jk, 

...... 22, 23 

ViraihiukE,/. ....... 22,23 

YiwpwMpt, a title of Vijayawgara Ung*, . 93, 95 

VIra-Vikrama or diva, . a. VJkrama, . 110, 111, 

113, 114, 117, 118, 121, 122 

Vtrfiohia 4 m., 


Virupakhapati, a titk of MahfaSna, 

\ r ira-Pai?(}ya, o Pa$4ya ch. 
ViravarmmadSva, a Chand&la k, t * 

Vi^akh-acharya, a Jatna ^orUt^r, 
Visakhaijaka, a c?an f 
viwrga, omission of , .. 
vittarga, wrong use of, 



. 0, 10, 17, 

19, 20..21, 23 


132, 133, 135 

.. 60 

* 97 



Yishj?ua6ma, name 



an architect (!), 








Vyamhar ika, one of the IS jpenkw, 
- Siva), a god, . 


Wairaga<Jh, *. a, 
Weatern Gaftga, 

100, 107 

t*.twiplei t^ village or taw; IF*- Western, 





1/1 A 

regnal : 
4th, .... 




. 4,13 

#a, bipartite form of , 






. 7, 14, 23 


16th, .... 

. 49 n. 
. 114 

YS4avaa of DSvagiri, dy. 9 
Ytijtiavalkya-smriti, a work, . 
Yajur~yda> a work, 
yalana, mistake for c jvalana, 
Yama, god of death, 

113, 114 
58, 67n. 

. 101 
126, 127 

17th, .... 

. 48, M 

21st, , 

. 4, 21, 49 
. 2,3 
49, 114 

22nd, .... 
26th, .... 


yfrpa, religious life, . . 
ya&ddharachariya, a /tuna awJt, 

85ra., 89 f 
. 80, 85, 89n. 
. 91 & add. 

65th, .... 


Saka ; 


Ya66nandin, a Jaina monk, . 

40 and n., 41, 43, 45 

40 n. 

934, .... 

. 65, 67, 69 

1088, .... 

110, 117, 121 

Yavana, e<x, people or tribe, 

7, 8, 22, 23, 36, 56, 
79, 84, 87 

1286 * * . . 


1488, . . f 


Salivahana-Saka : 

90, 91, 93, 95 

Chalukya-vikrama : 


Sariivat : 
1108 .... 

126, 127 



1154, .... 

105, 106, 108 

of the cycle i 


1159, . . 

105, 107, 108 

1311, .... 

105, 106, 107, 108 
132, 134 

Tfeilt n'vrA 


90, 93, 95 

Vikrama Samvat : 

129, 130 

Paridh&vin, * 

. 65 and ., 67, 69 
110, 118, 121 
113, 114 

135, 136 

Yecjarave inscription of Chalukya 
VI, . 

75> m*. 

. 91 

Vyaya, . 

110, 117, 121 

Jefaw-MwM, title ofSad&tiw, 

Nayaka 91 

Gupta-Samvat ; 
159, . 

. 61, 63, 64 

Yeliflrfcr record, . 
YflgSSvara-yati, <* teacher. 

110, 117, 120 


(Harsha) Samvat \ 

Malava t 
589, .... 
Mllava-Vikrama : 
Nanda : 
103, .... 

122, 123 


. 75, 84, 87 n. 

Yonaka-Dhammarakkhita, m ** 
Yuan Chwang, a Chinese pilgrim, ... 126 
Yudhishthira, an epic hero, . * 63,127 
Jvga-Pw*W> * part of the Oargi-*a*M&, * 76 

Yuvamah&raja. an epithet, 9 ** 

^ -~ ma^MUfBUf^*** 1 

. """I 7 A _ . A ~M fn f.KA ft^diiiona. l?he 

*Thefigwei refer to pagea: . after a figure, 


teeing other abteevfctai. e d -*- chief , eo.-oo^try, *~ 
dynMtT; J.-Bartems /.-female, taking j .-male; mo.- 
surnames to..*.mplej ^.-village or town; KF.